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==History==
 
==History==
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===Native Americans===
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U.S. history books have generally glossed over the crimes the U.S. government has perpetrated against Native Americans. Although some of the early colonies practiced peaceful and fair dealings with the Native Americans (see William Penn's 1682 Province of Pennsylvania and Roger Williams 1641 Province of Rhode Island), they were exceptions, not the rule. Other colonies and later states created treaties with the Natives that were broken, or took advantage of the language barrier to steal their land or otherwise defraud them. Examples include the Canandaigua Treaty of 1794 and Treaty K, signed during the Gold Rush, which California officials avoided keeping by pressuring the U.S. Senate to refuse ratification during the Gold Rush for the sake of monetary gain.<ref>Lo Wang, Hansi (2015, January 18). "[https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2015/01/18/368559990/broken-promises-on-display-at-native-american-treaties-exhibit Broken Promises On Display At Native American Treaties Exhibit.]" ''NPR.''</ref> In some cases the early British colonists even gave the Natives smallpox-infected blankets or poisoned their drinking water to kill men, women, and children indiscriminately.<ref>Gill Jr., Harold B. (Spring 2004). "[http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/spring04/warfare.cfm Colonial Germ Warfare.]" ''Colonial Williamsburg Journal.''</ref>
  
===Christian Origins of U.S. Abolition===
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Some Native American tribes were peaceful, such as the Narragansett tribe which welcomed Roger Williams, whereas others were warfaring, enslaving other tribes and killing women and children viciously. Although American culture has normalized the myth of vicious Native American warriors scalping their enemies, the practice was actually normalized (though not invented) by European settlers during the French and Indian War. The British and French forces hired Native American tribes to fight for them against one another, with scalping the method of keeping count, or coup, of how many enemies they had killed.<ref>Bray III, George A. "[https://www.varsitytutors.com/earlyamerica/early-america-review/volume-3/scalping-during-the-french-and-indian-war Scalping During the French and Indian Wars.]" ''Varsity Tutors.''</ref> In some cases, European settlers even practiced scalping themselves.<ref>A&E Television Networks (2010, February 9). "[https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/american-colonists-practice-scalping This Day in History: February 20, 1725-American Colonists Practice Scalping.]" ''History Channel.''</ref>
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====Trail of Tears====
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One of the worst genocidal actions by the U.S. government was perpetrated by President Andrew Jackson as part of his Indian removal policy. Between 1838 and 1839, 15,000 Cherokees were forcibly evicted from their tribal lands east of the Mississippi River by the U.S. government and forced at gunpoint to march across the United States to a reservation in Oklahoma. 4,000 Cherokees died of disease, fatigue, and starvation during the march.<ref>"[https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h1567.html Historical Documents: The Trail of Tears, 1942.]" ''PBS.''</ref>
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====Battle of Little Bighorn====
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=====Genocide Against the Cheyenne=====
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Richard Hardorff in "''Washita Memories: Eyewitness Views of Custer's Attack on Black Kettle's Village''" describes how the U.S. government repeatedly betrayed the Cheyenne tribe, breaking treaty after treaty with them, before General Custer had them murdered in cold blood in what the 1924 Indian Bureau labeled genocide. As observed by the ''History Channel'', "''On November 26, Custer located a large village of Cheyenne encamped near the Washita River, just outside of present-day Cheyenne, Oklahoma. Custer did not attempt to identify which group of Cheyenne was in the village, or to make even a cursory reconnaissance of the situation. Had he done so, Custer would have discovered that they were peaceful people and the village was on reservation soil, where the commander of Fort Cobb had guaranteed them safety. There was even a white flag flying from one of the main dwellings, indicating that the tribe was actively avoiding conflict... Within a few hours, the village was destroyed–the soldiers had killed 103 Cheyenne, including the peaceful Black Kettle and many women and children. Hailed as the first substantial American victory in the Indian wars, the Battle of the Washita helped to restore Custer’s reputation and succeeded in persuading many Cheyenne to move to the reservation.''"<ref>"[https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/custer-massacres-cheyenne-on-washita-river This Day in History: November 27, 1868-Custer Massacres Cheyenne on Washita River.]" ''History Channel.''</ref>
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{{cquote|"By 1861 Black Kettle realized that the survival of his people depended on peaceful relations with the whites and agreed to sign the Fort Wise Treaty, the first chief to do so. but his trust was shattered at Sand Creek in 1864 with the genocidal attack against innocent men, women, and children by Chivington's volunteer troops. Black Kettle's wife sustained nine bullet wounds but miraculously survived. In October 1865 government commissioners met with Black kettle, who spoke sorrowfully of the people who had died because they had trusted him, adding that his 'shame was as big as the earth.'
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Despite the betrayal of his people, Black Kettle continued to pursue peaceful relations with the whites and signed the Treaty of the Little Arkansas, ceding all the lands between the Arkansas and Platte rivers. To compensate the Cheyennes for their sufferings at Sand Creek, each widow and orphan was granted 160 acres of land and each chief received a half-section on the Arkansas reservation. The land provisions were never fulfilled. During a council with Agent Wynkoop in 1866, Black Kettle requested restitution for the six hundred ponies lost at Sand Creek and the return of two Cheyenne children taken captive by Chivington's men. Neither request was honored. Despite threats from the powerful Dog Soldiers, the chief signed the Medicine Lodge Treaty in 1867, by which the Cheyennes agreed to accept a reservation in Indian Territory...
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In October 1868 Black Kettle's band hunted buffalo near the Antelope Hills in the western part of present Oklahoma. Acting upon rumors of troop movements against the Cheyennes, Black Kettle and a small delegation traveled to Fort Coff for a conference with General Hazen. Their request to relocate their people nearer to the agency for protection was denied. Hazen advised them to return to their winter camps and to make peace with the soldiers of General Sheridan. Destiny would not give them that opportunity. on November 27 the bands of Black kettle and Little Rock were annihilated by Custer's brutal dawn attack. Black Kettle and his wife were among the first to die.""
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-Richard Hardorff<ref>Hardorff, Richard (2006). "[https://books.google.com/books?id=KkxaJWf0dpwC&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54#v=onepage&q&f=false Washita Memories: Eyewitness Views of Custer's Attack on Black Kettle's Village.]" pg. 46. ''University of Oklahoma Press Norman.''</ref>}}
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=====Custer's Folly=====
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Given General Custer's immoral slaughter of women and children to advance his reputation, it is fitting that his name is best remembered with shame after he walked into an ambush. While U.S. historybooks have long painted this as a "massacre" by vicious Indians, in fact it was Custer who was attempting to once again slaughter women and children. His own cruelty led to his demise. Custer just two years before the Battle of Little Bighorn boasted about how he used the tactic of threatening the lives of women and children to gain victory:
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{{cquote|Indians contemplating a battle, either offensive or defensive, are always anxious to have their women and children removed from all danger…For this reason I decided to locate our [military] camp as close as convenient to [Chief Black Kettle's Cheyenne] village, knowing that the close proximity of their women and children, and their necessary exposure in case of conflict, would operate as a powerful argument in favor of peace, when the question of peace or war came to be discussed.<ref> Custer, George Armstrong (1874). "[https://quod.lib.umich.edu/m/moa/ACP4940.0001.001/232?rgn=full+text;view=image My Life on the Plains: Or, Personal Experiences with Indians.]" New York: ''Sheldon and Company.'' p. 220.</ref>}}
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Lieutenant Edward Settle Godfrey concluded that Custer's unusual detour was part of an attempt to attack what he saw as an undefended camp of women and children, in a repeat of his attack on Black Kettle.
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{{cquote|"Custer... expected to find the squaws and children fleeing to the bluffs on the north, for in no other way do I account for his wide detour to the right. He must have counted upon Reno's success, and fully expected the 'scatteration' of the non-combatants with the pony herds. The probable attack upon the families and capture of the herds were in that event counted upon to strike consternation in the hearts of the warriors, and were elements for success upon which General Custer fully counted in the event of a daylight attack."<ref>Godfrey, Edward Settle (1892). "[https://books.google.com/books?id=n07iBAAAQBAJ&lpg=PP1&pg=PT85#v=onepage&q&f=false The Godfrey Diary of the Battle of the Little Bighorn: (Annotated)]." ''Big Byte Books.''</ref>}}
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Unaware of the number of troops below, Custer foolishly rushed to attack, and his 600 men were quickly overwhelmed by more than 3,000 Native Americans; less than an hour later Custer and all of his troops were dead.<ref>A&E Television Networks (2018, August 21). "[https://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/battle-of-the-little-bighorn Battle of the Little Bighorn.]" ''History Channel.''</ref>
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====1924 Indian Citizenship Act====
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The 1924 Indian Citizenship Act was signed into law by Republican President Calvin Coolidge following its passage by a Republican-run Congress, finally providing Native Americans with U.S. citizenship. However, no record of the vote count in either the House or Senate has been preserved.
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===Slavery===
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====Christian Origins of U.S. Abolition====
  
 
The early opponents of slavery in the Americas were not liberals but Christian conservatives. Roger Williams established the openly Christian province of Rhode Island in 1641, whose 1663 charter advocated adherence to "gospel principles... in the true Christian faith and worship of God" as well as the first anti-slavery group in the U.S. Although Rhode Island passed a 1652 law prohibiting slavery, by the end of the 17th century it was no longer enforced.<ref>"[https://www.brown.edu/Facilities/John_Carter_Brown_Library/exhibitions/jcbexhibit/Pages/exhibSlavery.html Slavery and the Slave Trade in Rhode Island.]" ''The John Carter Brown Library, Brown University.''</ref>
 
The early opponents of slavery in the Americas were not liberals but Christian conservatives. Roger Williams established the openly Christian province of Rhode Island in 1641, whose 1663 charter advocated adherence to "gospel principles... in the true Christian faith and worship of God" as well as the first anti-slavery group in the U.S. Although Rhode Island passed a 1652 law prohibiting slavery, by the end of the 17th century it was no longer enforced.<ref>"[https://www.brown.edu/Facilities/John_Carter_Brown_Library/exhibitions/jcbexhibit/Pages/exhibSlavery.html Slavery and the Slave Trade in Rhode Island.]" ''The John Carter Brown Library, Brown University.''</ref>
  
The radically Christian Quakers would prove the primary opponents of slavery throughout early America, figuring prominently in William Penn's Province of Pennsylvania.
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The radically Christian Quakers would prove the primary opponents of slavery throughout early America, figuring prominently in William Penn's Province of Pennsylvania. Christian churches played a prominent role in the Underground Railroad, just as they would do so a century later during the 1950s-60s civil rights movement. The Quakers were the earliest to assist escaped slaves in gaining freedom, with George Washington complaining they had attempted to liberate one of his slaves, but numerous other denominations were involved in the Underground Railroad as well.<ref>"[https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/underground-railroad Underground Railroad.]" ''History Channel.''</ref>
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====African Slave Trade====
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African nations, like Native American and European nations (see e.g. the Volga Trade Route and Ottoman Slave Trade), would enslave their conquered enemies in war. Numerous Africans were sold by their enemies into slavery to Americans, but what is not commonly known is that African countries enslaved white Americans for sale in the African slave trade.
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=====Barbary Wars=====
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It was not just whites who enslaved blacks, but blacks who enslaved whites. The Barbary Wars occurred because three North African Muslim nations, Tripoli, Tunis, and Algiers used their navies to hijack U.S. ships at the beginning of American history when it did not have a navy. Treaties with the three Islamic countries made at the time all show how much influence they held in the bargaining process. Nonetheless, the treaties were broken, resulting in the First and Second Barbary Wars to stop the enslavement of white Americans for the African slave trade.<ref>Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs. "[https://history.state.gov/milestones/1801-1829/barbary-wars Barbary Wars, 1801–1805 and 1815–1816.]" ''U.S. Department of State.''</ref>
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=====Moroccan Treaty=====
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A notable exception was Morocco which, unlike the other three nations, acknowledged the right of the fledgling U.S. government to exist. The U.S. treaty with Morocco is one of the United States' oldest unbroken treaties.<ref>"[https://ma.usembassy.gov/our-relationship/policy-history/io/ History of the U.S. and Morocco.]" ''U.S. Embassy and Consulate in Morocco.''<br>"[http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/bar1786t.asp The Barbary Treaties 1786-1816: Treaty with Morocco June 28 and July 15, 1786.]" Avalon Project. ''Yale Law School.''</ref>
  
===Early Mexican Abolition===
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====Mexican Abolition, Mexican-American War====
  
 
It is little-known that the Mexican-American War occurred because Mexico outlawed slavery. As Frederick Douglass pointed out in his address at Belfast Ireland, Mexico originally opened its borders to modern-day Texas (then part of Mexico) because it had too much land and not enough settlers. Numerous Americans came in, many of them bringing their slaves. However, Mexico then outlawed slavery in 1829. The ex-American slaveholders attempted to circumvent this by declaring slaves indentured servants, but this too was outlawed by Mexico. Furious, the settlers, led by Sam Austin, petitioned the U.S. government, claiming that Texas wanted to cede from Mexico. U.S. President James Polk, along with the Democratic Party, acceded to the request, knowing that more slave states were needed to protect the institution of slavery at a time when free states were beginning to outnumber the slave states. Thus the U.S. started a war with Mexico to create more slave states out of the captured territory (Texas, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arizona, and Colorado).
 
It is little-known that the Mexican-American War occurred because Mexico outlawed slavery. As Frederick Douglass pointed out in his address at Belfast Ireland, Mexico originally opened its borders to modern-day Texas (then part of Mexico) because it had too much land and not enough settlers. Numerous Americans came in, many of them bringing their slaves. However, Mexico then outlawed slavery in 1829. The ex-American slaveholders attempted to circumvent this by declaring slaves indentured servants, but this too was outlawed by Mexico. Furious, the settlers, led by Sam Austin, petitioned the U.S. government, claiming that Texas wanted to cede from Mexico. U.S. President James Polk, along with the Democratic Party, acceded to the request, knowing that more slave states were needed to protect the institution of slavery at a time when free states were beginning to outnumber the slave states. Thus the U.S. started a war with Mexico to create more slave states out of the captured territory (Texas, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arizona, and Colorado).
  
To quote Frederick Douglass:<ref>Douglass, F. (1846, January 6). “[https://glc.yale.edu/texas-slavery-and-american-prosperity Texas, Slavery, and American Prosperity: An Address Delivered in Belfast, Ireland, on January 2, 1846.]” ''Belfast News Letter.'' The Gilman Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition. Yale University. <br>Blassingame, J., et. al. (1979). “[http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/1063.htm The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One--Speeches, Debates, and Interviews.]” New Haven: ''Yale University Press''. Vol. I, p. 118.</ref>
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Polk sent U.S. troops to the border between the U.S. and Texas to start a war, and then falsely claimed that Mexican troops attacked first. As a result, three U.S. Presidents all condemned the Mexican-American War because of Democrats' dishonesty in starting a war on false pretenses in the name of slavery, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and John Quincy Adams.<ref>Lincoln, A. (1848, January 12). “[http://quod.lib.umich.edu/l/lincoln/lincoln1/1:444?rgn=div1;view=fulltext Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln.]” Vol. 1. ''University of Michigan Library.''</ref> Ulysses S. Grant even expressed the view that the Civil War was God's divine punishment upon America for its unjust actions in the Mexican-American War, stating, "Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war of modern times."<ref>Grant, Ulysses S. (1885). "[https://books.google.com/books?id=4zMTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56 Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant.]" Vol. 1. Pg. 56.</ref>
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To quote Frederick Douglass:
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{{cquote|"They accordingly took their families and slaves to Texas, from the blighted and blasted fields of Virginia—fields once fertile as any under Heaven—(hear)—and which would have still remained so had they not been cursed by the infernal spirit of slavery. We do not hear of much confusion in Texas, until 1828 or 1829, when Mexico after having erected herself into a separate government and declared herself free, with a consistency which puts to the blush the boasted “land of freedom,” proclaimed the deliverance of every captive on her soil. Unlike the boasted republic of America, she did this at an immense cost to her own slaveholders—not proclaiming liberty with her lips, while she fastened chains on the slave—not securing liberty for her own children but also for the degraded bondsman of Africa. This act of the Mexican government was resisted at once by the settlers who  had carried their slaves into Texas, though they were bound by a solemn agreement to submit to the laws of Mexico. They remonstrated with the government. They said their slaves were too ignorant and degraded to be emancipated. The Mexican government, desirous to treat amicably with those whom it had welcomed to its bosom, listened to this remonstrance, and consented that the Texian slaves should be only gradually emancipated under a system of indentured apprenticeship. Even this restriction was evaded by the Texians, making the indentures binding for 99 years. In fact they showed themselves to be a set of swindlers.<br>Well, Mexico attempted an enforcement of her law, making it impossible for any man to hold an apprentice more than ten years. This was resisted on the plea that the slaves would not be fit for freedom even then. One would think ten years long enough to teach them the value of liberty, but these wise Americans could not understand how that could be the case. The Texians still persisted in holding their slaves, contrary to the express declaration of their legislature—contrary to the law of the land—to drive them before the biting lash to their hard tasks, day after day, without wages. Again, the Mexican Government attempted to enforce its law, but then Texas revolts—defies the law—and calls upon the people of the United States to aid her in, what they termed their struggle for religious liberty! Yes, they said they could not worship God according to the dictates of their conscience, alluding to the contract entered into by them as professing Roman Catholics. I am not prepared to say whether that contract was a righteous one or not, but, I do say, that after possessing themselves of the land, on the faith of their being Roman Catholics, they should be the last to complain on that score. If they had been honest, they would have said, in regard to their religious opinions, “We have changed our minds; we feel we cannot longer belong to the Church of Rome; we cannot, according to our contract, worship God as our conscience dictates; many of us are Methodists—many are Presbyterians; if you will allow us to worship God as we think right, we will stay in the soil; if not, we feel compelled to abandon it, and seek some other place.” That is the way that common honesty would force them to act, but the people of the United States—and here is one of the darkest acts of their whole history—understanding the terms upon which the Texians had obtained the territory, and well-knowing the exact nature of the contract—offered them the means of successfully resisting Mexico—afforded them arms and ammunition, and even the men who. at San Jacinto, wrested the territory from the rightful owners. Here was an act of national robbery perpetrated, and for what? For the re-establishment of slavery on a soil which had been washed pure from its polluting influence by the generous act of a “semibarbarous” people!<br>The man who goes into your ship on the high seas, puts out the captain, takes down the ensign and declares himself the owner—is no greater robber than the people of the United States. And what are their excuses, their apologies, their reasons—for they always give reasons for what they do? One of them is, that Mexico is unable to defend her territory, and that therefore they have a right to take it! What do you think of a great heavy-fisted fellow pouncing on every little man he meets, and giving as his reason that the little man is unable to take care of himself? We don’t see this pretext made use of in the case of Canada. Mexico, nevertheless, is a sister republic, which has taken that of the United States for a model. But Mexico is a weak government, and that is the reason America falls on her—the British territories are safe because England is strong.<br>Oh, how superlatively base—how mean—how dastardly—do the American people appear in the light of justice—of reason—of liberty—when this particular point of her conduct is exposed! But here there was a double point to be gained—on the part of the Southern planters to establish and cultivate large plantations in the South—and on that of the Northern ones, to support what Daniel O’Connell says should not be called the internal, but the infernal, slave-trade, which is said to be worse than the foreign slave-trade, for it allows men to seize upon those who have sported with them on the hills, and played with them at school, and are associated with them in so many ways and under so many interesting circumstances. This is more horrible still than to prowl along the African shore and carry off thence men with whose faces at least we are unfamiliar, and to whose characters we are strangers. Still the chief object of the Annexation of Texas was the quickening of the foreign slave-trade, which is the very jugular vein of slavery, and of which, if kept within narrow limits, we would soon be rid. But the cry of slavery is ever “Give, give, give!” That cry is heard from New England to Virginia. It goes on, leaving a blighted soil behind—leaving the fields which it found fertile and luxuriant, covered with stunted pines. From Virginia it has gone to North Carolina, and from that to South Carolina, leaving ruin in its train, and now it seizes on the fertile regions of Texas, where it had been previously abolished by a people whom we are wont to call semi-civilized. They say they only want to increase their commerce, and add to their security. Oh what a reason to give for plunder! The pirate of the high seas might make the same excuse."<br><br>-Frederick Douglass, 1846<ref>Douglass, F. (1846, January 6). “[https://glc.yale.edu/texas-slavery-and-american-prosperity Texas, Slavery, and American Prosperity: An Address Delivered in Belfast, Ireland, on January 2, 1846.]” ''Belfast News Letter.'' The Gilman Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition. Yale University. <br>Blassingame, J., et. al. (1979). “[http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/1063.htm The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One--Speeches, Debates, and Interviews.]” New Haven: ''Yale University Press''. Vol. I, p. 118.</ref>}}
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====Civil War====
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The Republican Union fought to free slaves while the South's Democrats fought on the side of the Confederacy to preserve slavery. For decades afterwards, Republican Presidents were exclusively military leaders who had fought in the Civil War. Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877) had been the Union's Commanding General of the U.S. Army. Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881) was a Brevet Major General. James A. Garfield (1881) was a Major General. Chester A. Arthur (1881-1885) was a Quartermaster General. Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893) was a Brevet Brigadier General. William McKinley (1897-1901) was a Brevet Major. As the first Republican President in over 40 years to have not served in the Civil War, it's small wonder that Teddy Roosevelt (1901-1909) felt so much pressure to be a war hero, given his predecessors, that he engineered the Spanish-American War so he could lead the Rough Riders.
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===Mexican Repatriation===
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During the Great Depression the U.S. government "repatriated," i.e. deported to Mexico, up to 2 million Mexican-Americans, approximately 50-60% of whom were U.S. citizens.<ref>Boisson, S. (2006, July 27). "[http://www.historynet.com/immigrants-the-last-time-america-sent-her-own-packing.htm Immigrants: The Last Time America Sent Her Own Packing.]" ''Weider History Group.''<br>Frame, C.S. (2009). "[http://public.csusm.edu/frame004/history.html Mexican Repatriation: History.]" ''California State University San Marcos.''<br>Grillo, I. (2008, February 7). "[http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1710851,00.html Mexico Tries to Help Deportees.]" ''Time Magazine.''<br>"[http://articles.boston.com/2004-09-12/news/29199630_1_deportation-immigrants-mexicans Unheralded Mass Deportation: Some Recall Forced Mexico Trip.]" ''Associated Press.''</ref> This began under President Herbert Hoover and continued under Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman, although much of the deportation was done by states such as California. To quote Arthur G. Arnoll, "The slogan has gone over the city and is being adhered to—‘employ  no Mexican while a white man is unemployed; get the Mexican back into Mexico regardless by what means.’ All this without taking into consideration the legality of the Mexican’s status of being here. It is a question of pigment, not a question of citizenship or right…"<ref>Koch, W. (2006, April 5). "[https://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-04-04-1930s-deportees-cover_x.htm U.S. Urged to Apologize for 1930s Deportations.]" ''USA Today.''</ref>
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According to FactCheck.org, 5.6 million were deported during the presidencies of Hoover, Truman, and Eisenhower-FDR's presidency is not addressed.<ref>Jackson, B. (2010, July 19). "[http://www.factcheck.org/2010/07/hoover-truman-ike-mass-deporters/ Hoover, Truman & Ike: Mass Deporters?]" ''Annenberg Public Policy Institute.''</ref> Given how many generations have passed since the 1930s, it is possible that 10 million or more of the so-called "illegals" are actually descended from former U.S. citizens. As such, Mexican-Americans have thrice over had their land taken from them by the U.S. government, firstly because most are descended from Native Americans, secondly because of the Mexican-American War, and thirdly because of the Mexican Repatriation.<ref>Estrada, J.K., Hidalgo-Miranda, A., et. al. (2006, October 11). "[http://www.ashg.org/genetics/abstracts/abs06/f1065.htm Evaluation of Ancestry and Linkage Disequilibrium Sharing in Admixed Population in Mexico.]" ''National Institute of Genomic Medicine, Mexico.''<br>"[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/377246/mestizo Mestizo.]" ''Encyclopaedia Britannica.''</ref>
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===Annexation of Hawaii===
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In 1887 a group of cabinet officials and advisors to King Kalakaua along with an armed militia staged a coup against the ruling monarchy, the Kingdom of Hawaii, which had been recognized as an independent nation by France and Britain since 1843.
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Between 1893 and 1898 the U.S. government backed a coup against the Kingdom of Hawaii and its Native residents. U.S. immigrants in the kingdom called upon John L. Stevens, a Republican politician and Hawaiian ambassador, to help take over Hawaii. Stevens had the Marines sent in to depose the Queen of Hawaii's government, resulting in her surrender to avoid loss of life for her subjects. Republican President Benjamin Harrison initially supported the annexation, but when President Grover Cleveland, a Democrat, took office, he initially rejected the annexation and forced an investigation. The resulting Blount Report criticized the U.S. government's overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii and the businessmen who had plotted the whole ordeal.
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{{cquote|"In January 1893, a group of American-born businessmen and sugar magnates staged a coup against the Hawaiian Queen Lili’uokalani. Backed by American marines, the insurgents forced the Queen to abdicate and dissolve the Kingdom of Hawaii, setting the former island nation on the path to eventual statehood. While the coup’s backers quickly declared the country a new Republic, their true goal was to be annexed by the U.S. They got their wish in 1898, when Hawaii was formally annexed by the U.S. and administered as a territory until 1959."<ref name=smithsonian>Lewis, Danny (2016, May 27). "[https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/five-times-united-states-officially-apologized-180959254/ Five Times the United States Officially Apologized.]" ''Smithsonian Magazine.''</ref>}}
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However, when the Spanish-American War broke out, Cleveland conceded to Congressional pressure and annexed Hawaii because the U.S. needed a military base in the Pacific.<ref>"[https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/hawaii-petition The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii.]" ''National Archives.''</ref> In 1993 Congress issued the Apology Resolution formally apologizing for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, one of the few times the U.S. has formally apologized for its actions.<ref name=smithsonian/>
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===Annexation of the Phillipines===
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====Spanish-American War====
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The U.S. actions towards the Philippines were the result of the U.S. victory in the Spanish-American War. The Spanish-American War occurred because Cuba, previously a holding of the Spanish government, rebelled against Spain in a 3-year war for independence. Following the mysterious explosion and sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine off the coast of Havana, the U.S. declared war against Spain. The 4-month war, instigated in part by future President Teddy Roosevelt, who led the 'Rough Riders' into combat, resulted in the Treaty of Paris as Spain ceded Guam and the Puerto Rico to the U.S., and sold the Philippines for $20 million.<ref>Office of the Historian. "[https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/spanish-american-war The Spanish-American War, 1898.]" ''U.S. Department of State.''</ref>
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====Filipino Revolution====
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However, the Spanish sale of the Philippines did not guarantee Filipino cooperation. On February 4, 1899, two days before the U.S. Senate ratified the Treaty of Paris, armed conflict broke out between U.S. forces and Filipino rebels led by Emilio Aguinaldo seeking independence. By the time the three-year war concluded, 4,200 American soldiers, 20,000 Filipino militants, and 200,000 Filipino civilians had died, the latter as the result of "violence, famine, and disease."<ref name=historian>Office of the Historian. "[https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/war The Philippine-American War, 1899–1902.]" ''U.S. Department of State.''</ref>
 +
 
 +
Atrocities were perpetrated by both sides during the war:
 +
 
 +
{{cquote|"The war was brutal on both sides. U.S. forces at times burned villages, implemented civilian reconcentration policies, and employed torture on suspected guerrillas, while Filipino fighters also tortured captured soldiers and terrorized civilians who cooperated with American forces."<ref name=historian/>}}
  
 +
After the Filipinos adopted guerilla warfare tactics against the vastly superior U.S. military, the U.S. resorted to a strategy called the 'policy of attraction' to defeat the rebels through cultural means.
 +
 +
{{cquote|"Even as the fighting went on, the colonial government that the United States established in the Philippines in 1900 under future President William Howard Taft launched a pacification campaign that became known as the 'policy of attraction.' Designed to win over key elites and other Filipinos who did not embrace Aguinaldo’s plans for the Philippines, this policy permitted a significant degree of self-government, introduced social reforms, and implemented plans for economic development. Over time, this program gained important Filipino adherents and undermined the revolutionaries’ popular appeal, which significantly aided the United States’ military effort to win the war. In 1907, the Philippines convened its first elected assembly, and in 1916, the Jones Act promised the nation eventual independence. The archipelago became an autonomous commonwealth in 1935, and the U.S. granted independence in 1946."<ref name=historian/>}}
  
 
===Nazism and Fascism, Left-Wing Concepts===
 
===Nazism and Fascism, Left-Wing Concepts===
Line 218: Line 298:
 
===Eisenhower's Role===
 
===Eisenhower's Role===
  
Republican President Dwight Eisenhower, perhaps more than anyone else except Martin Luther King Jr., was strongly responsible for sparking the 1960s Civil Rights revolution. Eisenhower as early as 1945 desegregated the armed forces while a five-star general in World War II's Battle of the Bulge. Not content to stop there, Eisenhower then as President desegregated schools, sending in the National Guard to enforce the Supreme Court's ruling in ''Brown v. Board of Education.''<ref>American Experience (n.d.). “[http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/eisenhower-domestic/ Eisenhower.]” PBS.<br>Andrews, E. (2014, December 16). “[http://www.history.com/news/8-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-battle-of-the-bulge 8 Things You May Not Know About the Battle of the Bulge.]” History Channel.</ref> Eisenhower then urged Congress to pass the first major civil rights legislation in decades, the 1957 Civil Rights Act, which was originally proposed by his Republican Attorney General Herbert Brownell. Lyndon B. Johnson, a renowned racist who boasted of opposing anti-lynching legislation,<ref>The Relentless Conservative (2011, August 24). “[http://www.huffingtonpost.com/the-relentless-conservative/the-democratic-partys-two_b_933995.html The Democratic Party’s Two-Facedness of Race Relations.]” Huffington Post.</ref> would ultimately take credit for Eisenhower's reforms, even though Johnson weakened the reforms that Eisenhower sought.<ref>Nichols, David A (2007, September 12). “[http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/12/opinion/12nichols.html Ike Liked Civil Rights.]” New York Times.</ref>
+
Republican President Dwight Eisenhower, perhaps more than anyone else except Martin Luther King Jr., was strongly responsible for sparking the 1960s Civil Rights revolution. Eisenhower as early as 1945 desegregated the armed forces while a five-star general in World War II's Battle of the Bulge. Not content to stop there, Eisenhower then as President desegregated schools, sending in the National Guard to enforce the Supreme Court's ruling in ''Brown v. Board of Education.''<ref>American Experience (n.d.). “[http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/eisenhower-domestic/ Eisenhower.]” PBS.<br>Andrews, E. (2014, December 16). “[http://www.history.com/news/8-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-battle-of-the-bulge 8 Things You May Not Know About the Battle of the Bulge.]” History Channel.</ref> Eisenhower then urged Congress to pass the first major civil rights legislation in decades, the 1957 Civil Rights Act, which was originally proposed by his Republican Attorney General Herbert Brownell. Lyndon B. Johnson, a renowned racist who boasted of opposing anti-lynching legislation,<ref>The Relentless Conservative (2011, August 24). “[http://www.huffingtonpost.com/the-relentless-conservative/the-democratic-partys-two_b_933995.html The Democratic Party’s Two-Facedness of Race Relations.]” Huffington Post.</ref> would ultimately take credit for Eisenhower's reforms, even though Johnson weakened the reforms that Eisenhower sought.<ref name=ike>Nichols, David A (2007, September 12). “[http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/12/opinion/12nichols.html Ike Liked Civil Rights.]” New York Times.</ref>
 +
 
 +
The 1960s civil rights legislation was in large part a response to Dwight Eisenhower's seven proposed recommendations calling for civil rights reform in 1959. Eisenhower's seven recommendations to Congress were as follows:<ref>Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1959). "[https://books.google.com/books?id=DG7VAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA164&lpg=PA164&dq=eisenhower+Commission+on+Equal+Job+Opportunity+Under+Government+Contracts&source=bl&ots=LaGqRipmFc&sig=Mn6ZghUHpIRxUFsx9AnEXialJag&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiP-ryByeveAhXFxFkKHbcXDiwQ6AEwB3oECBoQAQ#v=onepage&q=eisenhower%20Commission%20on%20Equal%20Job%20Opportunity%20Under%20Government%20Contracts&f=false Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States.]"</ref>
 +
 
 +
# Legislation making the threatened use of force to obstruct school desegregation a federal offense.
 +
# Legislation conferring additional investigative powers to the FBI for investing church destruction (e.g. the Birmingham Church Bombing) and making interstate flight to avoid detention or prosecution for such crimes a criminal offense.
 +
# Legislation authorizing the Attorney General to inspect federal election records and requiring that such records be preserved to prevent disenfranchisement of voters.
 +
# Temporary assistance programs to aid state and local agencies in desegregating schools.
 +
# Legislation providing for the education of military children when state-administered schools are closed due to desegregation requirements.
 +
# Equal opportunity in employment via a "statutory Commission Equal Job Opportunity Under Government Contracts." This would become the EEOC.
 +
# Legislation extending the civil rights commission.
 +
 
 +
===The King Era===
 +
 
 +
In contrast to today's Democrats and their position on affirmative action, Martin Luther King Jr. did not preach secular values but Christian ones; did not advocate prioritizing certain groups or classes above others per affirmative action but fought for equality; and did not concern himself with politically correct speech but Biblically-based principles such as Jesus' commandment in John 7:24: "Judge not according to the appearance, but judge righteous judgment."<ref>Alderton, Matt (2018, February 2). "[https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2018/02/02/martin-luther-king-profile/1081249001/ From Boyhood to His Last Days, King Pursued Equality.]" ''USA Today.''</ref> King was assassinated after the FBI wiretapped him as part of an attempt by Democrat administrations to discredit him. The FBI, headed by dishonest crook J. Edgar Hoover, submitted a report falsely categorizing King as a Communist just weeks before his death, and omitting conversations showing he was opposed to Communism.<ref name=sit>Sit, Ryan (2018, January 15). "[https://www.newsweek.com/fbi-martin-luther-king-jr-surveillence-wiretap-report-j-edgar-hoover-780630 Here's What the FBI Had on Martin Luther King Jr.]" ''Newsweek.''</ref>
 +
 
 +
====Assassinations Timeline====
 +
 
 +
The following is a timeline relating to assassinations (shown in bold) near the time of the civil rights movement:
 +
 
 +
* '''Medgar Evers''': 1963, June 12. A civil rights activist and head of Mississippi's NAACP, he was assassinated by Byron De La Beckwith. Beckwith would not be convicted until 1994 at age 80 after two previous trials failed as the result of the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission helping him screen out potential jurors.<ref>Stout, David (2001, January 23). "[https://www.nytimes.com/2001/01/23/us/byron-de-la-beckwith-dies-killer-of-medgar-evers-was-80.html Byron De La Beckwith Dies; Killer of Medgar Evers Was 80.]" ''New York Times.''</ref>
 +
* Robert Kennedy Authorizes King Wiretapping: 1963, October 10. Robert Kennedy, at the time the Attorney General under John F. Kennedy's administration, formally authorized the FBI wiretapping of King that, until that point, had been conducted by the Mobile, Alabama FBI branch since December 1955.<ref name=sit/> The animosity between FBI head J. Edgar Hoover and King reached its peak a few months later in April 1964 when King accused the FBI of being "completely ineffectual in resolving the continued mayhem and brutality inflicted upon the Negro in the Deep South." A few months later on November 18, 1964, Hoover accused King of being the "most notorious liar in the country."<ref name=post>Phillips, Kristine (2017, November 4). "[https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/retropolis/wp/2017/11/04/in-the-latest-jfk-files-the-fbis-ugly-analysis-on-martin-luther-king-jr-filled-with-falsehoods/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.3f7eb92940dd In the Latest JFK Files: The FBI's Ugly Analysis on Martin Luther King Jr., Filled with Falsehoods.]" ''Washington Post.''</ref>
 +
* JFK Begin Campaign for 1964 Election: 1963, November 12. On November 12th, JFK held his first important political planning session for the upcoming 1964 campaign. On November 21st, he and the First Lady left for a two-day, five-city tour of Texas.<ref name=jfklibrary>"[https://www.jfklibrary.org/learn/about-jfk/jfk-in-history/november-22-1963-death-of-the-president JFK History: November 22, 1963: Death of the President.]" ''John F. Kennedy presidential Library and Museum.''</ref>
 +
* '''John F. Kennedy''': 1963, November 22. Kennedy was assassinated just 10 days after beginning his political campaign for the 1964 election. He was assassinated in Dallas, Texas by an unknown gunman. Kennedy would die at Parkland Memorial Hospital at 1 p.m.<ref name=jfklibrary/> According to Jacqueline Kennedy in a 1964 interview, John F. Kennedy had recently been discussing with his brother, Robert Kennedy, ways to keep his rival, Lyndon B. Johnson, who he disliked, from becoming the Vice President in the future, just before the assassination.<ref name=nola>Associated Press (2011, September 11). "[https://www.nola.com/politics/index.ssf/2011/09/john_f_kennedy_openly_scorned.html John F. Kennedy Scorned Idea of Lyndon Johnson as President, Jacqueline Kennedy Said.]" ''NOLA Media Group.''</ref> It appears that LBJ, aware he would be passed up in the upcoming 1964 election and not selected for Vice President, chose to have Kennedy assassinated to advance his own political career.
 +
* '''Lee Harvey Oswald''': 1963, November 24. The alleged gunman responsible for Kennedy's death, Lee Harvey Oswald, was assassinated at point blank range by Jack Ruby while being transferred from police headquarters to the county jail. He too would die of his wounds at Parkland Memorial Hospital.<ref name=jfklibrary/> Ruby claimed that he assassinated Oswald to spare Jacqueline Kennedy the grief of testifying at his trial.<ref name=britannica>Tikkanen, Amy (2018, January 18). "[https://www.britannica.com/biography/Jack-Ruby Jack Ruby, American Assassin.]" ''Encyclopaedia Britannica.''</ref> Jacqueline Kennedy, as mentioned, was aware that both JFK and his brother Robert Kennedy were opposed to LBJ's selection as Vice President, so Oswald had to die to prevent Jackie Kennedy from testifying and exposing LBJ.
 +
* Suicide Letter Sent by FBI to King: 1964, November 21. The FBI, headed by J. Edgar Hoover, sent King a letter urging him to commit suicide.<ref>Gage, Beverly (2014, November 11). "[https://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/16/magazine/what-an-uncensored-letter-to-mlk-reveals.html What an Uncensored Letter to M.L.K. Reveals.]" ''New York Times.''</ref>[[File:Mlk-uncovered-letter.png|thumb|Mlk-uncovered-letter]]
 +
* '''Malcolm X''': 1965, February 21. Malcolm X's assassination is the only assassination during the Johnson administration which does not appear to have been perpetrated  by Lyndon B. Johnson. Malcolm X had helped popularize the Nation of Islam, whose leader Elijah Muhammad grew the movement by recruiting federal prison inmates while incarcerated at the Federal Correctional Institution in Milan. The Nation of Islam advocated black supremacy, segregation of whites and blacks, and rejected the Civil Rights Movement's emphasis on unity and integration. However, Malcolm X in March, 1964 (the same month that he met Martin Luther King Jr. on the floor of Congress<ref name=cnn>Stewart, Alicia W. & Escobedo, Tricia (2014, April 10). "[https://www.cnn.com/2014/04/10/politics/civil-rights-act-interesting-facts/index.html What You Might Not Know About the 1964 Civil Rights Act.]" ''CNN Politics.''</ref>) left the Nation of Islam and expressed regret for having joined them. Less than a year later he was assassinated by three Nation of Islam members in February, 1965. The only gunman caught, Talmadge Hayer, insisted that the others involved were not Norman Butler and Thomas Johnson, yet Butler and Johnson were railroaded and spent decades in prison.<ref>Newman, Andy & Eligon, John (2010, March 19). "[https://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/03/19/killer-of-malcolm-x-granted-parole/ Killer of Malcolm X is Granted Parole.]" ''New York Times.''</ref>
 +
* '''Jack Ruby''': 1967, January 3. Ruby, the assassin of Kennedy's alleged assassin, was killed just before the start of a second trial by the Texas Court of Appeals challenging his recent death penalty verdict.<ref name=britannica/><ref>"[https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/jack-ruby-dies-before-second-trial This Day in History: January 3rd, 1967.]" ''History Channel.''</ref>
 +
* '''George Lincoln Rockwell''': 1967, August 25. Rockwell, founder of the American Nazi Party, was ironically anti-war, capitalist, and in support of black supremacist groups like the Nation of Islam (although ironically only because he opposed desegregation also). In July 1958 he protested President Eisenhower's decision to send troops to the Middle East. Apparently unaware of the self-contradicting irony of his position, he founded the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists (WUFENS) for socialists who oppose state ownership of property. He also donated in support of the Nation of Islam and endorsed its leader, Elijah Muhammad. Rockwell was assassinated by John Patler, who had recently been expelled from the American Nazi Party. Patler, ironically, was expelled from the party for holding "Bolshevik leanings," all because of Rockwell's ignorance and unawareness that the "National Socialist Party" is left-wing to begin with. To see Rockwell's sincere yet seriously confused ideology on display, see his pamphlet, "How to Get Out or Stay Out of the Insane Asylum."
 +
* FBI Report Portrays King as Communist: 1968, March 12. Although FBI wiretapping records reveal that King told his adviser Bayard Rustin in May 1965 that "There are things I wanted to say renouncing communism in theory, but they would not go along with it. We wanted to say that it was an alien philosophy contrary to us, but they wouldn’t go along with it," the FBI concealed this and other evidence from its 1968 report in a dishonest attempt to portray King as a Communist.<ref name=post/>
 +
* '''Martin Luther King Jr.''': 1968, April 4. Less than a month after the FBI report, King was assassinated by James Earl Ray, who shot him with a rifle while he was standing on the second floor balcony of his motel. James Earl Ray was framed for the murder after his appointed defense lawyer coerced him into a false confession which he recanted three days later. Although a Tennessee court ruled in 1999 that Lt. Earl Clark was the real killer and Loyd Jowers was part of a coverup by the Mafia and U.S. government to kill King, the FBI refused to investigate.<ref>Ismi, Asad (2018, January 13). "[https://www.globalresearch.ca/who-killed-martin-luther-king-the-cover-up-of-the-century/5502343 MLK Day: Who Killed Martin Luther King? The Cover-Up of the Century.]" ''Global Research.''<br>Yellin, Emily (1999, December 9). "[https://www.nytimes.com/1999/12/09/us/memphis-jury-sees-conspiracy-in-martin-luther-king-s-killing.html Memphis Jury Sees Conspiracy in Martin Luther King's Killing.]" ''New York Times.''</ref>
 +
* '''Robert F. Kennedy''': 1968, June 5. Robert "Bobby" Kennedy was assassinated after telling Jacqueline Kennedy of his plans to have someone other than Lyndon B. Johnson chosen for the 1968 Presidential Ticket.<ref name=nola/> Following his victory in the California Democratic Primary election, he was shot by Sirhan Sirhan with a revolver at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. RFK's son, Robert F. Kennedy Jr., has expressed the belief that a second gunman was responsible for killing his father. In the words of the Washington Post's Tom Jackman: {{cquote|"Though Sirhan admitted at his trial in 1969 that he shot Kennedy, he claimed from the start that he had no memory of doing so. And midway through Sirhan’s trial, prosecutors provided his lawyers with an autopsy report that launched five decades of controversy: Kennedy was shot at point-blank range from behind, including a fatal shot behind his ear. But Sirhan, a 24-year-old Palestinian immigrant, was standing in front of him."<br>-Tom Jackman, Washington Post<ref>Jackman, Tom (2018, June 5). "Who Killed Bobby Kennedy? His Son RFK Jr. Doesn't Believe it was Sirhan Sirhan." ''Washington Post.''</ref>}}
 +
* '''Fred Hampton''': 1969, December 4. Like King, Hampton, an influential activist in the NAACP and Deputy Chairman of the Black Panther Party, was assassinated following his wiretapping by the FBI. The FBI opened a file on him in 1967 and began tapping his mother's phone in February 1968. The FBI's Chicago office had William O'Neal infiltrate the Black Panther Party to become Hampton's bodyguard and Director of Chapter security, using him to create violent conflicts between the Black Panthers and other groups. Hampton was about to be appointed the Chief of Staff and primary spokesperson for the Black Panthers when he was murdered by the FBI and Chicago Police, who had him drugged with barbiturates so he couldn't resist when they raided his apartment and killed him and his security detail in cold blood. In 1982 the federal government, city of Chicago, and Cook County agreed to a $1.8 million settlement reimbursing nine plaintiffs which included Hampton's mother.<ref>Silva, Christianna (2017, December 4). "[https://www.newsweek.com/fred-hampton-black-panther-shot-killed-chicago-730503 Who Was Fred Hampton, the Black Panther Shot and Killed in His Bed by Chicago Police 48 Years Ago?]" ''Newsweek.''</ref>
 +
 
 +
====Lyndon B. Johnson, Murderer====
 +
 
 +
Not only King, but numerous other prominent figures related to the civil rights movement were assassinated over a 7-year period that corresponds perfectly with Democrat President Lyndon B. Johnson's administration (1963-69). After then-Attorney General Robert Kennedy approved the wiretapping of King on October 10th, 1963, his brother John F. Kennedy was assassinated less than two months later.<ref name=garrow>Garrow, David J. (2002, July/August). "[https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2002/07/the-fbi-and-martin-luther-king/302537/ The FBI and Martin Luther King.]" ''The Atlantic.''</ref> That Kennedy's assassination was part of a wide-reaching coverup is evident from the fact that Kennedy's alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, was himself quickly assassinated by Jack Ruby, with Ruby himself assassinated on January 3rd, 1967. All three were assassinated and died at the same hospital, Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas. Robert himself would be assassinated five years later on June 5th, 1968.
 +
 
 +
The clear evidence seems to point to Lyndon B. Johnson heading a range of assassinations of civil rights leaders in conjunction with the FBI's J. Edgar Hoover. The FBI's report mischaracterizing King as a Communist just weeks before his assassination, following more than a decade of wiretapping which included the FBI sending him a 1964 letter urging him to commit suicide, clearly implicates the Bureau itself. And the timeline of assassination perfectly corresponds with LBJ's administration, with LBJ standing most to gain from John F. Kennedy's assassination. It may be that Robert Kennedy was a part of the initial plot, and was assassinated later along with Ruby to better conceal what had happened, in spite of their willing involvement. That the administration of Parkland Memorial Hospital was involved seems evident not only from the circumstances but also the self-congratulating tone of administrator C.J. Price at the time.<ref>(1963, November 27). "[https://flashbak.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/dallas-county-jfk1.jpg Dallas County Hospital District Office Memorandum.]" ''Flashbak.''</ref>
 +
 
 +
=====Johnson's Racism=====
 +
 
 +
Lyndon B. Johnson has ironically received most of the credit for the civil rights legislation of the 1960s, even though he weakened the reforms sought by Eisenhower.<ref name=ike/> Johnson opposed every civil rights proposal he faced during his first 20 years in Congress, from 1937 to 1957. Johnson opposed legislation to stop the poll tax, segregation, and lynching during that time.<ref>Shelby, W. Gardner & Davis, Debra (2014, April 14). "[https://www.politifact.com/texas/statements/2014/apr/14/barack-obama/lyndon-johnson-opposed-every-civil-rights-proposal/ Lyndon Johnson Opposed Every Civil Rights Proposal in His First 20 Years as Lawmaker - True.]" ''PolitiFact.''</ref> He opposed anti-lynching legislation "because the federal government has no more business enacting a law against one form of murder than against another."
 +
 
 +
Johnson was an old-school racist southern Democrat whose quotes include the following:<ref>The Relentless Conservative (2011, October 4). "[https://www.huffingtonpost.com/the-relentless-conservative/the-democratic-partys-two_b_933995.html The Democratic Party’s Two-Facedness of Race Relations.]" ''Huffington Post.''</ref>
 +
 
 +
{{cquote|"The [Truman] civil rights program is a farce and a sham—an effort to set up a police state in the guise of liberty. I am opposed to that program. I have voted against the so-called poll tax repeal bill ... I have voted against the so-called anti-lynching bill."
 +
 
 +
"I’ll have those n*ggers voting Democratic for the next 200 years."<br>(Said to two governors aboard Air Force One)
 +
 
 +
"These Negroes, they’re getting pretty uppity these days and that’s a problem for us since they’ve got something now they never had before, the political pull to back up their uppityness. Now we’ve got to do something about this, we’ve got to give them a little something, just enough to quiet them down, not enough to make a difference. For if we don’t move at all, then their allies will line up against us and there’ll be no way of stopping them, we’ll lose the filibuster and there’ll be no way of putting a brake on all sorts of wild legislation. It’ll be Reconstruction all over again."}}
 +
 
 +
=====Why the Coverup?=====
 +
The Democratic Party has for decades given Lyndon B. Johnson credit for civil rights reforms. Furthermore, much of America's social welfare system was originated during Johnson's administration, including Medicare (1965) and Medicaid (1965). Johnson's 'Great Society' (1964-65) produced numerous changes through legislation such as the Older Americans Act, Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and Higher Education Facilities Act of 1963.
 +
 
 +
Lyndon B. Johnson's credit for civil rights legislation was crucial to the Democratic Party's continued success. Eisenhower in 1956 had received 39% of the black vote and Nixon received 32% in 1960. However, coinciding with passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, blacks voted 94% for LBJ and the Democrats in 1964. As noted by FactCheck.org, "The following year Johnson signed the 1965 Voting Rights Act. No Republican presidential candidate has gotten more than 15 percent of the black vote since."<ref>Jackson, Brooks (2008, April 18). "[https://www.factcheck.org/2008/04/blacks-and-the-democratic-party/ Blacks and the Democratic Party.]" ''FactCheck.org.''</ref>
 +
 
 +
However, it was Republicans who continued voting in higher percentages for civil rights legislation.<ref name=cnn/> Even as LBJ weakened Eisenhower's attempted reforms, he took credit for civil rights progress. The 1968 Civil Rights Act included anti-riot provisions designed to stamp out protests by the Black Panthers and those furious with the growing number of assassinations of civil rights leaders.<ref>"[http://todayinclh.com/?event=congress-passes-anti-riot-act 1968, April 11-Congress Passes Anti-Riot Act.]" ''Today in Civil Liberties History.''</ref> The Chicago Seven, for example, were charged with rioting at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in violation of the Act. Judge Hoffman had Bobby Seale, the cofounder of the Black Panther Party, bound and gagged for protesting at the trial, then sentenced him to 4 years in prison.<ref>"[https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-chicago-seven-go-on-trial This Day in History, September 24, 1969-The 'Chicago Seven' Go On Trial.]" ''History Channel.''<br>"[https://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/chicago-seven-1 Chicago Seven.]" ''History Channel.''</ref>
 +
 
 +
In essence, the Democrats including LBJ had numerous civil rights leaders murdered, weakened Eisenhower's intended reforms, and passed anti-riot language to stamp out the resulting riots, all while successfully gaining the black vote for nearly a century.
  
 
===Southern Strategy===
 
===Southern Strategy===
  
 
I am reserving a broader discussion of "Southern Strategy" for my book. My arguments against the parties switching sides will be detailed there. Needless to say though, Democrats remain the same party of socialism they were in 1935 when they created Social Security and in 1965 when they created Medicare. For just a few examples of the Democrats' link to their racist past, see Al Gore Jr., whose father Al Gore Sr. voted as a U.S. Senator against the 1964 Civil Rights Act, Bill Clinton's mentor James William Fulbright, another Senator to vote against the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and of course, Hillary Clinton's mentor Robert Byrd, a former Ku Klux Klan leader and yet another U.S. Senator who not only opposed the 1964 Civil Rights Act but delivered a record-breaking 14 hour and 13 minute speech attempting to filibuster the Civil Rights Act to stop its passage.
 
I am reserving a broader discussion of "Southern Strategy" for my book. My arguments against the parties switching sides will be detailed there. Needless to say though, Democrats remain the same party of socialism they were in 1935 when they created Social Security and in 1965 when they created Medicare. For just a few examples of the Democrats' link to their racist past, see Al Gore Jr., whose father Al Gore Sr. voted as a U.S. Senator against the 1964 Civil Rights Act, Bill Clinton's mentor James William Fulbright, another Senator to vote against the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and of course, Hillary Clinton's mentor Robert Byrd, a former Ku Klux Klan leader and yet another U.S. Senator who not only opposed the 1964 Civil Rights Act but delivered a record-breaking 14 hour and 13 minute speech attempting to filibuster the Civil Rights Act to stop its passage.
 +
 +
==The Bible and Racism==
 +
::''See [https://biblestrength.com/Slavery Biblestrength.com/Slavery]''
 +
 +
The Bible repeatedly condemns racism and viewing others based on the outward appearance. In Song of Solomon 1:5-6, Solomon's lover describes herself as utterly black and says not to look differently at her just because the sun changed her pigment color. Similarly in Numbers 12:1-14, an example of racism and God's response can be seen. Moses' siblings, Aaron and Miriam, criticize him for having an Ethiopian wife. A furious God rebukes them, even displaying a sense of humor by punishing Miriam with leprosy so that her skin becomes diseased and "white as snow" so that she must live in exile from the Israelites for a week to be healed.
 +
 +
Jesus urges us to "judge not after the outward appearance but judge righteous judgment." (John 7:24) The Apostle Paul in his letter to Philemon calls upon a slave-owning friend of his to release his slave Onesimus and treat him as a brother, offering to pay any debts the slave owes, and reminding the slaveowner that he himself owes his own salvation to Paul. Onesimus would go on to become a Bishop in the early Christian church. The Apostle Paul repeatedly states that God views everyone equally without distinctions such as race, class, or even slavery status. (Galatians 3:28, Colossians 3:11, 1 Corinthians 12:13, Ephesians 6:8)
 +
 +
And slavery? The Bible contains some of the strongest laws against slavery to be found anywhere in ancient government. The Bible ordered that escaped slaves not be returned to their masters and allowed to live where they choose without oppression. (Deuteronomy 23:15) Those who enslave others were to be put to death (Exodus 21:16) and anyone injured over so much as loss of a tooth to be freed from any debts or bondage. (Exodus 21:26-27)
  
 
==Sources==
 
==Sources==

Latest revision as of 16:45, 24 November 2018

Republicans consistently voted in higher percentages for civil rights bills from the 1860s to the 1960s.[1] The following is a history of civil rights legislation showing how both parties have voted.

Civil Rights Legislation

Year Legislation Republicans Democrats
House Senate Percent House Senate Percent
1865 13th Amendment[2] 86/86 34/34 100% 14/63 3/9 24%
1866 Civil Rights Act[3] 118/120 32/36 96% 0/33 0/11 0%
1866 14th Amendment[4] 128/128 32/35 98% 0/37 0/8 0%
1870 15th Amendment[5] 142/146 39/43 96% 0/39 0/9 0%
1870 Enforcement Act[6] 132/133 48/49 99% 0/54 0/10 0%
1871 Enforcement Act[7] 93/94 36/38 98% 0/73 0/11 0%
1875 Civil Rights Act[8] 162/177 38/45 90% 0/85 0/18 0%
1919 19th Amendment[9] 200/219 36/44 90% 102/172 20/37 58%
1924 Indian Citizenship Act Unrecorded, passed by GOP President/Congress
1957 Civil Rights Act[10] 167/186 43/43 92% 118/225 29/47 54%
1960 Civil Rights Act[11] 123/135 29/29 93% 165/248 42/60 67%
1963 Equal Pay Act[12] 160/160 34/34 100% 201/210 65/65 96%
1964 Civil Rights Act[13] 136/171 27/34 80% 152/243 46/66 64%
1965 Voting Rights Act[14] 109/129 30/31 87% 218/272 49/65 79%
1965 Immigration and Nationality Act[15] 117/127 24/27 92% 202/262 52/66 77%
1991 Civil Rights Act[16] 128/161 38/43 81% 252/257 55/55 98%
1996 Adoption Promotion and Stability Act[17] 219/220 - 100% 170/184 - 92%
1998 International Religious Freedom Act[18] 206/220 55/55 95% 167/195 43/43 88%
2002 Born-Alive Infants Protection Act[19] 200/220 47/49 92% 179/210 50/50 88%
2003 Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act[20] 218/229 47/51 95% 63/205 17/48 32%

History

Native Americans

U.S. history books have generally glossed over the crimes the U.S. government has perpetrated against Native Americans. Although some of the early colonies practiced peaceful and fair dealings with the Native Americans (see William Penn's 1682 Province of Pennsylvania and Roger Williams 1641 Province of Rhode Island), they were exceptions, not the rule. Other colonies and later states created treaties with the Natives that were broken, or took advantage of the language barrier to steal their land or otherwise defraud them. Examples include the Canandaigua Treaty of 1794 and Treaty K, signed during the Gold Rush, which California officials avoided keeping by pressuring the U.S. Senate to refuse ratification during the Gold Rush for the sake of monetary gain.[21] In some cases the early British colonists even gave the Natives smallpox-infected blankets or poisoned their drinking water to kill men, women, and children indiscriminately.[22]

Some Native American tribes were peaceful, such as the Narragansett tribe which welcomed Roger Williams, whereas others were warfaring, enslaving other tribes and killing women and children viciously. Although American culture has normalized the myth of vicious Native American warriors scalping their enemies, the practice was actually normalized (though not invented) by European settlers during the French and Indian War. The British and French forces hired Native American tribes to fight for them against one another, with scalping the method of keeping count, or coup, of how many enemies they had killed.[23] In some cases, European settlers even practiced scalping themselves.[24]

Trail of Tears

One of the worst genocidal actions by the U.S. government was perpetrated by President Andrew Jackson as part of his Indian removal policy. Between 1838 and 1839, 15,000 Cherokees were forcibly evicted from their tribal lands east of the Mississippi River by the U.S. government and forced at gunpoint to march across the United States to a reservation in Oklahoma. 4,000 Cherokees died of disease, fatigue, and starvation during the march.[25]

Battle of Little Bighorn

Genocide Against the Cheyenne

Richard Hardorff in "Washita Memories: Eyewitness Views of Custer's Attack on Black Kettle's Village" describes how the U.S. government repeatedly betrayed the Cheyenne tribe, breaking treaty after treaty with them, before General Custer had them murdered in cold blood in what the 1924 Indian Bureau labeled genocide. As observed by the History Channel, "On November 26, Custer located a large village of Cheyenne encamped near the Washita River, just outside of present-day Cheyenne, Oklahoma. Custer did not attempt to identify which group of Cheyenne was in the village, or to make even a cursory reconnaissance of the situation. Had he done so, Custer would have discovered that they were peaceful people and the village was on reservation soil, where the commander of Fort Cobb had guaranteed them safety. There was even a white flag flying from one of the main dwellings, indicating that the tribe was actively avoiding conflict... Within a few hours, the village was destroyed–the soldiers had killed 103 Cheyenne, including the peaceful Black Kettle and many women and children. Hailed as the first substantial American victory in the Indian wars, the Battle of the Washita helped to restore Custer’s reputation and succeeded in persuading many Cheyenne to move to the reservation."[26]

"By 1861 Black Kettle realized that the survival of his people depended on peaceful relations with the whites and agreed to sign the Fort Wise Treaty, the first chief to do so. but his trust was shattered at Sand Creek in 1864 with the genocidal attack against innocent men, women, and children by Chivington's volunteer troops. Black Kettle's wife sustained nine bullet wounds but miraculously survived. In October 1865 government commissioners met with Black kettle, who spoke sorrowfully of the people who had died because they had trusted him, adding that his 'shame was as big as the earth.'

Despite the betrayal of his people, Black Kettle continued to pursue peaceful relations with the whites and signed the Treaty of the Little Arkansas, ceding all the lands between the Arkansas and Platte rivers. To compensate the Cheyennes for their sufferings at Sand Creek, each widow and orphan was granted 160 acres of land and each chief received a half-section on the Arkansas reservation. The land provisions were never fulfilled. During a council with Agent Wynkoop in 1866, Black Kettle requested restitution for the six hundred ponies lost at Sand Creek and the return of two Cheyenne children taken captive by Chivington's men. Neither request was honored. Despite threats from the powerful Dog Soldiers, the chief signed the Medicine Lodge Treaty in 1867, by which the Cheyennes agreed to accept a reservation in Indian Territory...

In October 1868 Black Kettle's band hunted buffalo near the Antelope Hills in the western part of present Oklahoma. Acting upon rumors of troop movements against the Cheyennes, Black Kettle and a small delegation traveled to Fort Coff for a conference with General Hazen. Their request to relocate their people nearer to the agency for protection was denied. Hazen advised them to return to their winter camps and to make peace with the soldiers of General Sheridan. Destiny would not give them that opportunity. on November 27 the bands of Black kettle and Little Rock were annihilated by Custer's brutal dawn attack. Black Kettle and his wife were among the first to die.""

-Richard Hardorff[27]

Custer's Folly

Given General Custer's immoral slaughter of women and children to advance his reputation, it is fitting that his name is best remembered with shame after he walked into an ambush. While U.S. historybooks have long painted this as a "massacre" by vicious Indians, in fact it was Custer who was attempting to once again slaughter women and children. His own cruelty led to his demise. Custer just two years before the Battle of Little Bighorn boasted about how he used the tactic of threatening the lives of women and children to gain victory:

Indians contemplating a battle, either offensive or defensive, are always anxious to have their women and children removed from all danger…For this reason I decided to locate our [military] camp as close as convenient to [Chief Black Kettle's Cheyenne] village, knowing that the close proximity of their women and children, and their necessary exposure in case of conflict, would operate as a powerful argument in favor of peace, when the question of peace or war came to be discussed.[28]

Lieutenant Edward Settle Godfrey concluded that Custer's unusual detour was part of an attempt to attack what he saw as an undefended camp of women and children, in a repeat of his attack on Black Kettle.

"Custer... expected to find the squaws and children fleeing to the bluffs on the north, for in no other way do I account for his wide detour to the right. He must have counted upon Reno's success, and fully expected the 'scatteration' of the non-combatants with the pony herds. The probable attack upon the families and capture of the herds were in that event counted upon to strike consternation in the hearts of the warriors, and were elements for success upon which General Custer fully counted in the event of a daylight attack."[29]

Unaware of the number of troops below, Custer foolishly rushed to attack, and his 600 men were quickly overwhelmed by more than 3,000 Native Americans; less than an hour later Custer and all of his troops were dead.[30]

1924 Indian Citizenship Act

The 1924 Indian Citizenship Act was signed into law by Republican President Calvin Coolidge following its passage by a Republican-run Congress, finally providing Native Americans with U.S. citizenship. However, no record of the vote count in either the House or Senate has been preserved.

Slavery

Christian Origins of U.S. Abolition

The early opponents of slavery in the Americas were not liberals but Christian conservatives. Roger Williams established the openly Christian province of Rhode Island in 1641, whose 1663 charter advocated adherence to "gospel principles... in the true Christian faith and worship of God" as well as the first anti-slavery group in the U.S. Although Rhode Island passed a 1652 law prohibiting slavery, by the end of the 17th century it was no longer enforced.[31]

The radically Christian Quakers would prove the primary opponents of slavery throughout early America, figuring prominently in William Penn's Province of Pennsylvania. Christian churches played a prominent role in the Underground Railroad, just as they would do so a century later during the 1950s-60s civil rights movement. The Quakers were the earliest to assist escaped slaves in gaining freedom, with George Washington complaining they had attempted to liberate one of his slaves, but numerous other denominations were involved in the Underground Railroad as well.[32]

African Slave Trade

African nations, like Native American and European nations (see e.g. the Volga Trade Route and Ottoman Slave Trade), would enslave their conquered enemies in war. Numerous Africans were sold by their enemies into slavery to Americans, but what is not commonly known is that African countries enslaved white Americans for sale in the African slave trade.

Barbary Wars

It was not just whites who enslaved blacks, but blacks who enslaved whites. The Barbary Wars occurred because three North African Muslim nations, Tripoli, Tunis, and Algiers used their navies to hijack U.S. ships at the beginning of American history when it did not have a navy. Treaties with the three Islamic countries made at the time all show how much influence they held in the bargaining process. Nonetheless, the treaties were broken, resulting in the First and Second Barbary Wars to stop the enslavement of white Americans for the African slave trade.[33]

Moroccan Treaty

A notable exception was Morocco which, unlike the other three nations, acknowledged the right of the fledgling U.S. government to exist. The U.S. treaty with Morocco is one of the United States' oldest unbroken treaties.[34]

Mexican Abolition, Mexican-American War

It is little-known that the Mexican-American War occurred because Mexico outlawed slavery. As Frederick Douglass pointed out in his address at Belfast Ireland, Mexico originally opened its borders to modern-day Texas (then part of Mexico) because it had too much land and not enough settlers. Numerous Americans came in, many of them bringing their slaves. However, Mexico then outlawed slavery in 1829. The ex-American slaveholders attempted to circumvent this by declaring slaves indentured servants, but this too was outlawed by Mexico. Furious, the settlers, led by Sam Austin, petitioned the U.S. government, claiming that Texas wanted to cede from Mexico. U.S. President James Polk, along with the Democratic Party, acceded to the request, knowing that more slave states were needed to protect the institution of slavery at a time when free states were beginning to outnumber the slave states. Thus the U.S. started a war with Mexico to create more slave states out of the captured territory (Texas, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arizona, and Colorado).

Polk sent U.S. troops to the border between the U.S. and Texas to start a war, and then falsely claimed that Mexican troops attacked first. As a result, three U.S. Presidents all condemned the Mexican-American War because of Democrats' dishonesty in starting a war on false pretenses in the name of slavery, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and John Quincy Adams.[35] Ulysses S. Grant even expressed the view that the Civil War was God's divine punishment upon America for its unjust actions in the Mexican-American War, stating, "Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war of modern times."[36]

To quote Frederick Douglass:

"They accordingly took their families and slaves to Texas, from the blighted and blasted fields of Virginia—fields once fertile as any under Heaven—(hear)—and which would have still remained so had they not been cursed by the infernal spirit of slavery. We do not hear of much confusion in Texas, until 1828 or 1829, when Mexico after having erected herself into a separate government and declared herself free, with a consistency which puts to the blush the boasted “land of freedom,” proclaimed the deliverance of every captive on her soil. Unlike the boasted republic of America, she did this at an immense cost to her own slaveholders—not proclaiming liberty with her lips, while she fastened chains on the slave—not securing liberty for her own children but also for the degraded bondsman of Africa. This act of the Mexican government was resisted at once by the settlers who had carried their slaves into Texas, though they were bound by a solemn agreement to submit to the laws of Mexico. They remonstrated with the government. They said their slaves were too ignorant and degraded to be emancipated. The Mexican government, desirous to treat amicably with those whom it had welcomed to its bosom, listened to this remonstrance, and consented that the Texian slaves should be only gradually emancipated under a system of indentured apprenticeship. Even this restriction was evaded by the Texians, making the indentures binding for 99 years. In fact they showed themselves to be a set of swindlers.
Well, Mexico attempted an enforcement of her law, making it impossible for any man to hold an apprentice more than ten years. This was resisted on the plea that the slaves would not be fit for freedom even then. One would think ten years long enough to teach them the value of liberty, but these wise Americans could not understand how that could be the case. The Texians still persisted in holding their slaves, contrary to the express declaration of their legislature—contrary to the law of the land—to drive them before the biting lash to their hard tasks, day after day, without wages. Again, the Mexican Government attempted to enforce its law, but then Texas revolts—defies the law—and calls upon the people of the United States to aid her in, what they termed their struggle for religious liberty! Yes, they said they could not worship God according to the dictates of their conscience, alluding to the contract entered into by them as professing Roman Catholics. I am not prepared to say whether that contract was a righteous one or not, but, I do say, that after possessing themselves of the land, on the faith of their being Roman Catholics, they should be the last to complain on that score. If they had been honest, they would have said, in regard to their religious opinions, “We have changed our minds; we feel we cannot longer belong to the Church of Rome; we cannot, according to our contract, worship God as our conscience dictates; many of us are Methodists—many are Presbyterians; if you will allow us to worship God as we think right, we will stay in the soil; if not, we feel compelled to abandon it, and seek some other place.” That is the way that common honesty would force them to act, but the people of the United States—and here is one of the darkest acts of their whole history—understanding the terms upon which the Texians had obtained the territory, and well-knowing the exact nature of the contract—offered them the means of successfully resisting Mexico—afforded them arms and ammunition, and even the men who. at San Jacinto, wrested the territory from the rightful owners. Here was an act of national robbery perpetrated, and for what? For the re-establishment of slavery on a soil which had been washed pure from its polluting influence by the generous act of a “semibarbarous” people!
The man who goes into your ship on the high seas, puts out the captain, takes down the ensign and declares himself the owner—is no greater robber than the people of the United States. And what are their excuses, their apologies, their reasons—for they always give reasons for what they do? One of them is, that Mexico is unable to defend her territory, and that therefore they have a right to take it! What do you think of a great heavy-fisted fellow pouncing on every little man he meets, and giving as his reason that the little man is unable to take care of himself? We don’t see this pretext made use of in the case of Canada. Mexico, nevertheless, is a sister republic, which has taken that of the United States for a model. But Mexico is a weak government, and that is the reason America falls on her—the British territories are safe because England is strong.
Oh, how superlatively base—how mean—how dastardly—do the American people appear in the light of justice—of reason—of liberty—when this particular point of her conduct is exposed! But here there was a double point to be gained—on the part of the Southern planters to establish and cultivate large plantations in the South—and on that of the Northern ones, to support what Daniel O’Connell says should not be called the internal, but the infernal, slave-trade, which is said to be worse than the foreign slave-trade, for it allows men to seize upon those who have sported with them on the hills, and played with them at school, and are associated with them in so many ways and under so many interesting circumstances. This is more horrible still than to prowl along the African shore and carry off thence men with whose faces at least we are unfamiliar, and to whose characters we are strangers. Still the chief object of the Annexation of Texas was the quickening of the foreign slave-trade, which is the very jugular vein of slavery, and of which, if kept within narrow limits, we would soon be rid. But the cry of slavery is ever “Give, give, give!” That cry is heard from New England to Virginia. It goes on, leaving a blighted soil behind—leaving the fields which it found fertile and luxuriant, covered with stunted pines. From Virginia it has gone to North Carolina, and from that to South Carolina, leaving ruin in its train, and now it seizes on the fertile regions of Texas, where it had been previously abolished by a people whom we are wont to call semi-civilized. They say they only want to increase their commerce, and add to their security. Oh what a reason to give for plunder! The pirate of the high seas might make the same excuse."

-Frederick Douglass, 1846[37]

Civil War

The Republican Union fought to free slaves while the South's Democrats fought on the side of the Confederacy to preserve slavery. For decades afterwards, Republican Presidents were exclusively military leaders who had fought in the Civil War. Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877) had been the Union's Commanding General of the U.S. Army. Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881) was a Brevet Major General. James A. Garfield (1881) was a Major General. Chester A. Arthur (1881-1885) was a Quartermaster General. Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893) was a Brevet Brigadier General. William McKinley (1897-1901) was a Brevet Major. As the first Republican President in over 40 years to have not served in the Civil War, it's small wonder that Teddy Roosevelt (1901-1909) felt so much pressure to be a war hero, given his predecessors, that he engineered the Spanish-American War so he could lead the Rough Riders.

Mexican Repatriation

During the Great Depression the U.S. government "repatriated," i.e. deported to Mexico, up to 2 million Mexican-Americans, approximately 50-60% of whom were U.S. citizens.[38] This began under President Herbert Hoover and continued under Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman, although much of the deportation was done by states such as California. To quote Arthur G. Arnoll, "The slogan has gone over the city and is being adhered to—‘employ no Mexican while a white man is unemployed; get the Mexican back into Mexico regardless by what means.’ All this without taking into consideration the legality of the Mexican’s status of being here. It is a question of pigment, not a question of citizenship or right…"[39]

According to FactCheck.org, 5.6 million were deported during the presidencies of Hoover, Truman, and Eisenhower-FDR's presidency is not addressed.[40] Given how many generations have passed since the 1930s, it is possible that 10 million or more of the so-called "illegals" are actually descended from former U.S. citizens. As such, Mexican-Americans have thrice over had their land taken from them by the U.S. government, firstly because most are descended from Native Americans, secondly because of the Mexican-American War, and thirdly because of the Mexican Repatriation.[41]

Annexation of Hawaii

In 1887 a group of cabinet officials and advisors to King Kalakaua along with an armed militia staged a coup against the ruling monarchy, the Kingdom of Hawaii, which had been recognized as an independent nation by France and Britain since 1843.

Between 1893 and 1898 the U.S. government backed a coup against the Kingdom of Hawaii and its Native residents. U.S. immigrants in the kingdom called upon John L. Stevens, a Republican politician and Hawaiian ambassador, to help take over Hawaii. Stevens had the Marines sent in to depose the Queen of Hawaii's government, resulting in her surrender to avoid loss of life for her subjects. Republican President Benjamin Harrison initially supported the annexation, but when President Grover Cleveland, a Democrat, took office, he initially rejected the annexation and forced an investigation. The resulting Blount Report criticized the U.S. government's overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii and the businessmen who had plotted the whole ordeal.

"In January 1893, a group of American-born businessmen and sugar magnates staged a coup against the Hawaiian Queen Lili’uokalani. Backed by American marines, the insurgents forced the Queen to abdicate and dissolve the Kingdom of Hawaii, setting the former island nation on the path to eventual statehood. While the coup’s backers quickly declared the country a new Republic, their true goal was to be annexed by the U.S. They got their wish in 1898, when Hawaii was formally annexed by the U.S. and administered as a territory until 1959."[42]

However, when the Spanish-American War broke out, Cleveland conceded to Congressional pressure and annexed Hawaii because the U.S. needed a military base in the Pacific.[43] In 1993 Congress issued the Apology Resolution formally apologizing for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, one of the few times the U.S. has formally apologized for its actions.[42]

Annexation of the Phillipines

Spanish-American War

The U.S. actions towards the Philippines were the result of the U.S. victory in the Spanish-American War. The Spanish-American War occurred because Cuba, previously a holding of the Spanish government, rebelled against Spain in a 3-year war for independence. Following the mysterious explosion and sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine off the coast of Havana, the U.S. declared war against Spain. The 4-month war, instigated in part by future President Teddy Roosevelt, who led the 'Rough Riders' into combat, resulted in the Treaty of Paris as Spain ceded Guam and the Puerto Rico to the U.S., and sold the Philippines for $20 million.[44]

Filipino Revolution

However, the Spanish sale of the Philippines did not guarantee Filipino cooperation. On February 4, 1899, two days before the U.S. Senate ratified the Treaty of Paris, armed conflict broke out between U.S. forces and Filipino rebels led by Emilio Aguinaldo seeking independence. By the time the three-year war concluded, 4,200 American soldiers, 20,000 Filipino militants, and 200,000 Filipino civilians had died, the latter as the result of "violence, famine, and disease."[45]

Atrocities were perpetrated by both sides during the war:

"The war was brutal on both sides. U.S. forces at times burned villages, implemented civilian reconcentration policies, and employed torture on suspected guerrillas, while Filipino fighters also tortured captured soldiers and terrorized civilians who cooperated with American forces."[45]

After the Filipinos adopted guerilla warfare tactics against the vastly superior U.S. military, the U.S. resorted to a strategy called the 'policy of attraction' to defeat the rebels through cultural means.

"Even as the fighting went on, the colonial government that the United States established in the Philippines in 1900 under future President William Howard Taft launched a pacification campaign that became known as the 'policy of attraction.' Designed to win over key elites and other Filipinos who did not embrace Aguinaldo’s plans for the Philippines, this policy permitted a significant degree of self-government, introduced social reforms, and implemented plans for economic development. Over time, this program gained important Filipino adherents and undermined the revolutionaries’ popular appeal, which significantly aided the United States’ military effort to win the war. In 1907, the Philippines convened its first elected assembly, and in 1916, the Jones Act promised the nation eventual independence. The archipelago became an autonomous commonwealth in 1935, and the U.S. granted independence in 1946."[45]

Nazism and Fascism, Left-Wing Concepts

Despite the attempts of liberals in academia to portray Nazism and Fascism as right-wing, in reality they always were left-wing in origin. The German word for Nazi is Nationalsozialismus which literally translates as National Socialist Party.[46] The Nazi platform included nationalized healthcare, retirement, and education even as they opposed capitalism. Scientists like Josef Mengele practiced the Nazi doctrine of Social Darwinism in committing heinous war crimes. The Nazis, like other Socialist and Communist nations, opposed religious freedom and Christianity. The leader of the Confessing Church, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, was arrested and executed, 800 German Protestant pastors were arrested and sent to concentration camps, and 400 Catholic priests were similarly sent to concentration camps.[47]

And Mussolini's Fascists? Benito Mussolini started out as a publisher of several Socialist newspapers like Avante! (Forward) and L’Avvenire del Lavoratore (The Worker’s Future).[48] Mussolini was an atheist who praised Karl Marx.[49] Even in his later years Mussolini continued advocating Socialism and claimed that he had attempted to nationalize property but had to delay doing so for wartime purposes.[50]

Eisenhower's Role

Republican President Dwight Eisenhower, perhaps more than anyone else except Martin Luther King Jr., was strongly responsible for sparking the 1960s Civil Rights revolution. Eisenhower as early as 1945 desegregated the armed forces while a five-star general in World War II's Battle of the Bulge. Not content to stop there, Eisenhower then as President desegregated schools, sending in the National Guard to enforce the Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education.[51] Eisenhower then urged Congress to pass the first major civil rights legislation in decades, the 1957 Civil Rights Act, which was originally proposed by his Republican Attorney General Herbert Brownell. Lyndon B. Johnson, a renowned racist who boasted of opposing anti-lynching legislation,[52] would ultimately take credit for Eisenhower's reforms, even though Johnson weakened the reforms that Eisenhower sought.[53]

The 1960s civil rights legislation was in large part a response to Dwight Eisenhower's seven proposed recommendations calling for civil rights reform in 1959. Eisenhower's seven recommendations to Congress were as follows:[54]

  1. Legislation making the threatened use of force to obstruct school desegregation a federal offense.
  2. Legislation conferring additional investigative powers to the FBI for investing church destruction (e.g. the Birmingham Church Bombing) and making interstate flight to avoid detention or prosecution for such crimes a criminal offense.
  3. Legislation authorizing the Attorney General to inspect federal election records and requiring that such records be preserved to prevent disenfranchisement of voters.
  4. Temporary assistance programs to aid state and local agencies in desegregating schools.
  5. Legislation providing for the education of military children when state-administered schools are closed due to desegregation requirements.
  6. Equal opportunity in employment via a "statutory Commission Equal Job Opportunity Under Government Contracts." This would become the EEOC.
  7. Legislation extending the civil rights commission.

The King Era

In contrast to today's Democrats and their position on affirmative action, Martin Luther King Jr. did not preach secular values but Christian ones; did not advocate prioritizing certain groups or classes above others per affirmative action but fought for equality; and did not concern himself with politically correct speech but Biblically-based principles such as Jesus' commandment in John 7:24: "Judge not according to the appearance, but judge righteous judgment."[55] King was assassinated after the FBI wiretapped him as part of an attempt by Democrat administrations to discredit him. The FBI, headed by dishonest crook J. Edgar Hoover, submitted a report falsely categorizing King as a Communist just weeks before his death, and omitting conversations showing he was opposed to Communism.[56]

Assassinations Timeline

The following is a timeline relating to assassinations (shown in bold) near the time of the civil rights movement:

  • Medgar Evers: 1963, June 12. A civil rights activist and head of Mississippi's NAACP, he was assassinated by Byron De La Beckwith. Beckwith would not be convicted until 1994 at age 80 after two previous trials failed as the result of the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission helping him screen out potential jurors.[57]
  • Robert Kennedy Authorizes King Wiretapping: 1963, October 10. Robert Kennedy, at the time the Attorney General under John F. Kennedy's administration, formally authorized the FBI wiretapping of King that, until that point, had been conducted by the Mobile, Alabama FBI branch since December 1955.[56] The animosity between FBI head J. Edgar Hoover and King reached its peak a few months later in April 1964 when King accused the FBI of being "completely ineffectual in resolving the continued mayhem and brutality inflicted upon the Negro in the Deep South." A few months later on November 18, 1964, Hoover accused King of being the "most notorious liar in the country."[58]
  • JFK Begin Campaign for 1964 Election: 1963, November 12. On November 12th, JFK held his first important political planning session for the upcoming 1964 campaign. On November 21st, he and the First Lady left for a two-day, five-city tour of Texas.[59]
  • John F. Kennedy: 1963, November 22. Kennedy was assassinated just 10 days after beginning his political campaign for the 1964 election. He was assassinated in Dallas, Texas by an unknown gunman. Kennedy would die at Parkland Memorial Hospital at 1 p.m.[59] According to Jacqueline Kennedy in a 1964 interview, John F. Kennedy had recently been discussing with his brother, Robert Kennedy, ways to keep his rival, Lyndon B. Johnson, who he disliked, from becoming the Vice President in the future, just before the assassination.[60] It appears that LBJ, aware he would be passed up in the upcoming 1964 election and not selected for Vice President, chose to have Kennedy assassinated to advance his own political career.
  • Lee Harvey Oswald: 1963, November 24. The alleged gunman responsible for Kennedy's death, Lee Harvey Oswald, was assassinated at point blank range by Jack Ruby while being transferred from police headquarters to the county jail. He too would die of his wounds at Parkland Memorial Hospital.[59] Ruby claimed that he assassinated Oswald to spare Jacqueline Kennedy the grief of testifying at his trial.[61] Jacqueline Kennedy, as mentioned, was aware that both JFK and his brother Robert Kennedy were opposed to LBJ's selection as Vice President, so Oswald had to die to prevent Jackie Kennedy from testifying and exposing LBJ.
  • Suicide Letter Sent by FBI to King: 1964, November 21. The FBI, headed by J. Edgar Hoover, sent King a letter urging him to commit suicide.[62]
    Mlk-uncovered-letter
  • Malcolm X: 1965, February 21. Malcolm X's assassination is the only assassination during the Johnson administration which does not appear to have been perpetrated by Lyndon B. Johnson. Malcolm X had helped popularize the Nation of Islam, whose leader Elijah Muhammad grew the movement by recruiting federal prison inmates while incarcerated at the Federal Correctional Institution in Milan. The Nation of Islam advocated black supremacy, segregation of whites and blacks, and rejected the Civil Rights Movement's emphasis on unity and integration. However, Malcolm X in March, 1964 (the same month that he met Martin Luther King Jr. on the floor of Congress[63]) left the Nation of Islam and expressed regret for having joined them. Less than a year later he was assassinated by three Nation of Islam members in February, 1965. The only gunman caught, Talmadge Hayer, insisted that the others involved were not Norman Butler and Thomas Johnson, yet Butler and Johnson were railroaded and spent decades in prison.[64]
  • Jack Ruby: 1967, January 3. Ruby, the assassin of Kennedy's alleged assassin, was killed just before the start of a second trial by the Texas Court of Appeals challenging his recent death penalty verdict.[61][65]
  • George Lincoln Rockwell: 1967, August 25. Rockwell, founder of the American Nazi Party, was ironically anti-war, capitalist, and in support of black supremacist groups like the Nation of Islam (although ironically only because he opposed desegregation also). In July 1958 he protested President Eisenhower's decision to send troops to the Middle East. Apparently unaware of the self-contradicting irony of his position, he founded the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists (WUFENS) for socialists who oppose state ownership of property. He also donated in support of the Nation of Islam and endorsed its leader, Elijah Muhammad. Rockwell was assassinated by John Patler, who had recently been expelled from the American Nazi Party. Patler, ironically, was expelled from the party for holding "Bolshevik leanings," all because of Rockwell's ignorance and unawareness that the "National Socialist Party" is left-wing to begin with. To see Rockwell's sincere yet seriously confused ideology on display, see his pamphlet, "How to Get Out or Stay Out of the Insane Asylum."
  • FBI Report Portrays King as Communist: 1968, March 12. Although FBI wiretapping records reveal that King told his adviser Bayard Rustin in May 1965 that "There are things I wanted to say renouncing communism in theory, but they would not go along with it. We wanted to say that it was an alien philosophy contrary to us, but they wouldn’t go along with it," the FBI concealed this and other evidence from its 1968 report in a dishonest attempt to portray King as a Communist.[58]
  • Martin Luther King Jr.: 1968, April 4. Less than a month after the FBI report, King was assassinated by James Earl Ray, who shot him with a rifle while he was standing on the second floor balcony of his motel. James Earl Ray was framed for the murder after his appointed defense lawyer coerced him into a false confession which he recanted three days later. Although a Tennessee court ruled in 1999 that Lt. Earl Clark was the real killer and Loyd Jowers was part of a coverup by the Mafia and U.S. government to kill King, the FBI refused to investigate.[66]
  • Robert F. Kennedy: 1968, June 5. Robert "Bobby" Kennedy was assassinated after telling Jacqueline Kennedy of his plans to have someone other than Lyndon B. Johnson chosen for the 1968 Presidential Ticket.[60] Following his victory in the California Democratic Primary election, he was shot by Sirhan Sirhan with a revolver at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. RFK's son, Robert F. Kennedy Jr., has expressed the belief that a second gunman was responsible for killing his father. In the words of the Washington Post's Tom Jackman:
"Though Sirhan admitted at his trial in 1969 that he shot Kennedy, he claimed from the start that he had no memory of doing so. And midway through Sirhan’s trial, prosecutors provided his lawyers with an autopsy report that launched five decades of controversy: Kennedy was shot at point-blank range from behind, including a fatal shot behind his ear. But Sirhan, a 24-year-old Palestinian immigrant, was standing in front of him."
-Tom Jackman, Washington Post[67]
  • Fred Hampton: 1969, December 4. Like King, Hampton, an influential activist in the NAACP and Deputy Chairman of the Black Panther Party, was assassinated following his wiretapping by the FBI. The FBI opened a file on him in 1967 and began tapping his mother's phone in February 1968. The FBI's Chicago office had William O'Neal infiltrate the Black Panther Party to become Hampton's bodyguard and Director of Chapter security, using him to create violent conflicts between the Black Panthers and other groups. Hampton was about to be appointed the Chief of Staff and primary spokesperson for the Black Panthers when he was murdered by the FBI and Chicago Police, who had him drugged with barbiturates so he couldn't resist when they raided his apartment and killed him and his security detail in cold blood. In 1982 the federal government, city of Chicago, and Cook County agreed to a $1.8 million settlement reimbursing nine plaintiffs which included Hampton's mother.[68]

Lyndon B. Johnson, Murderer

Not only King, but numerous other prominent figures related to the civil rights movement were assassinated over a 7-year period that corresponds perfectly with Democrat President Lyndon B. Johnson's administration (1963-69). After then-Attorney General Robert Kennedy approved the wiretapping of King on October 10th, 1963, his brother John F. Kennedy was assassinated less than two months later.[69] That Kennedy's assassination was part of a wide-reaching coverup is evident from the fact that Kennedy's alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, was himself quickly assassinated by Jack Ruby, with Ruby himself assassinated on January 3rd, 1967. All three were assassinated and died at the same hospital, Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas. Robert himself would be assassinated five years later on June 5th, 1968.

The clear evidence seems to point to Lyndon B. Johnson heading a range of assassinations of civil rights leaders in conjunction with the FBI's J. Edgar Hoover. The FBI's report mischaracterizing King as a Communist just weeks before his assassination, following more than a decade of wiretapping which included the FBI sending him a 1964 letter urging him to commit suicide, clearly implicates the Bureau itself. And the timeline of assassination perfectly corresponds with LBJ's administration, with LBJ standing most to gain from John F. Kennedy's assassination. It may be that Robert Kennedy was a part of the initial plot, and was assassinated later along with Ruby to better conceal what had happened, in spite of their willing involvement. That the administration of Parkland Memorial Hospital was involved seems evident not only from the circumstances but also the self-congratulating tone of administrator C.J. Price at the time.[70]

Johnson's Racism

Lyndon B. Johnson has ironically received most of the credit for the civil rights legislation of the 1960s, even though he weakened the reforms sought by Eisenhower.[53] Johnson opposed every civil rights proposal he faced during his first 20 years in Congress, from 1937 to 1957. Johnson opposed legislation to stop the poll tax, segregation, and lynching during that time.[71] He opposed anti-lynching legislation "because the federal government has no more business enacting a law against one form of murder than against another."

Johnson was an old-school racist southern Democrat whose quotes include the following:[72]

"The [Truman] civil rights program is a farce and a sham—an effort to set up a police state in the guise of liberty. I am opposed to that program. I have voted against the so-called poll tax repeal bill ... I have voted against the so-called anti-lynching bill."

"I’ll have those n*ggers voting Democratic for the next 200 years."
(Said to two governors aboard Air Force One)

"These Negroes, they’re getting pretty uppity these days and that’s a problem for us since they’ve got something now they never had before, the political pull to back up their uppityness. Now we’ve got to do something about this, we’ve got to give them a little something, just enough to quiet them down, not enough to make a difference. For if we don’t move at all, then their allies will line up against us and there’ll be no way of stopping them, we’ll lose the filibuster and there’ll be no way of putting a brake on all sorts of wild legislation. It’ll be Reconstruction all over again."

Why the Coverup?

The Democratic Party has for decades given Lyndon B. Johnson credit for civil rights reforms. Furthermore, much of America's social welfare system was originated during Johnson's administration, including Medicare (1965) and Medicaid (1965). Johnson's 'Great Society' (1964-65) produced numerous changes through legislation such as the Older Americans Act, Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and Higher Education Facilities Act of 1963.

Lyndon B. Johnson's credit for civil rights legislation was crucial to the Democratic Party's continued success. Eisenhower in 1956 had received 39% of the black vote and Nixon received 32% in 1960. However, coinciding with passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, blacks voted 94% for LBJ and the Democrats in 1964. As noted by FactCheck.org, "The following year Johnson signed the 1965 Voting Rights Act. No Republican presidential candidate has gotten more than 15 percent of the black vote since."[73]

However, it was Republicans who continued voting in higher percentages for civil rights legislation.[63] Even as LBJ weakened Eisenhower's attempted reforms, he took credit for civil rights progress. The 1968 Civil Rights Act included anti-riot provisions designed to stamp out protests by the Black Panthers and those furious with the growing number of assassinations of civil rights leaders.[74] The Chicago Seven, for example, were charged with rioting at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in violation of the Act. Judge Hoffman had Bobby Seale, the cofounder of the Black Panther Party, bound and gagged for protesting at the trial, then sentenced him to 4 years in prison.[75]

In essence, the Democrats including LBJ had numerous civil rights leaders murdered, weakened Eisenhower's intended reforms, and passed anti-riot language to stamp out the resulting riots, all while successfully gaining the black vote for nearly a century.

Southern Strategy

I am reserving a broader discussion of "Southern Strategy" for my book. My arguments against the parties switching sides will be detailed there. Needless to say though, Democrats remain the same party of socialism they were in 1935 when they created Social Security and in 1965 when they created Medicare. For just a few examples of the Democrats' link to their racist past, see Al Gore Jr., whose father Al Gore Sr. voted as a U.S. Senator against the 1964 Civil Rights Act, Bill Clinton's mentor James William Fulbright, another Senator to vote against the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and of course, Hillary Clinton's mentor Robert Byrd, a former Ku Klux Klan leader and yet another U.S. Senator who not only opposed the 1964 Civil Rights Act but delivered a record-breaking 14 hour and 13 minute speech attempting to filibuster the Civil Rights Act to stop its passage.

The Bible and Racism

See Biblestrength.com/Slavery

The Bible repeatedly condemns racism and viewing others based on the outward appearance. In Song of Solomon 1:5-6, Solomon's lover describes herself as utterly black and says not to look differently at her just because the sun changed her pigment color. Similarly in Numbers 12:1-14, an example of racism and God's response can be seen. Moses' siblings, Aaron and Miriam, criticize him for having an Ethiopian wife. A furious God rebukes them, even displaying a sense of humor by punishing Miriam with leprosy so that her skin becomes diseased and "white as snow" so that she must live in exile from the Israelites for a week to be healed.

Jesus urges us to "judge not after the outward appearance but judge righteous judgment." (John 7:24) The Apostle Paul in his letter to Philemon calls upon a slave-owning friend of his to release his slave Onesimus and treat him as a brother, offering to pay any debts the slave owes, and reminding the slaveowner that he himself owes his own salvation to Paul. Onesimus would go on to become a Bishop in the early Christian church. The Apostle Paul repeatedly states that God views everyone equally without distinctions such as race, class, or even slavery status. (Galatians 3:28, Colossians 3:11, 1 Corinthians 12:13, Ephesians 6:8)

And slavery? The Bible contains some of the strongest laws against slavery to be found anywhere in ancient government. The Bible ordered that escaped slaves not be returned to their masters and allowed to live where they choose without oppression. (Deuteronomy 23:15) Those who enslave others were to be put to death (Exodus 21:16) and anyone injured over so much as loss of a tooth to be freed from any debts or bondage. (Exodus 21:26-27)

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