Difference between revisions of "Israel"

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==Historical Context==
 
==Historical Context==
  
===Antiquity===
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===2120 B.C.: Abraham===
 
 
====The Bible====
 
 
::''See also [https://biblestrength.com/Bible_Chronology Bible Chronology]''
 
::''See also [https://biblestrength.com/Bible_Chronology Bible Chronology]''
 
It is important to note that God gave land, not just to Israel, but also to neighboring nations such as the Edomites (descended from Esau, Jacob's brother), the Ammonites, and the Moabites (both descended from Lot, Abraham's brother). The land was promised to Abraham over 4,000 years ago, [https://biblestrength.com/Bible_Chronology around 2120 B.C.], during the time that he lived in Canaan. Thus Abraham and his descendants, including Jacob (surnamed Israel) lived in Canaan, now modern-day Israel, from approximately 2120 B.C. to 1925 B.C. Following a 430-year sojourn in Egypt (Exodus 12:40-41), they would return to Israel around 1495 B.C.
 
It is important to note that God gave land, not just to Israel, but also to neighboring nations such as the Edomites (descended from Esau, Jacob's brother), the Ammonites, and the Moabites (both descended from Lot, Abraham's brother). The land was promised to Abraham over 4,000 years ago, [https://biblestrength.com/Bible_Chronology around 2120 B.C.], during the time that he lived in Canaan. Thus Abraham and his descendants, including Jacob (surnamed Israel) lived in Canaan, now modern-day Israel, from approximately 2120 B.C. to 1925 B.C. Following a 430-year sojourn in Egypt (Exodus 12:40-41), they would return to Israel around 1495 B.C.
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Deuteronomy 2:17-19 That the Lord spake unto me, saying, Thou art to pass over through Ar, the coast of Moab, this day: And when thou comest nigh over against the children of Ammon, distress them not, nor meddle with them: for I will not give thee of the land of the children of Ammon any possession; because I have given it unto the children of Lot for a possession.}}
 
Deuteronomy 2:17-19 That the Lord spake unto me, saying, Thou art to pass over through Ar, the coast of Moab, this day: And when thou comest nigh over against the children of Ammon, distress them not, nor meddle with them: for I will not give thee of the land of the children of Ammon any possession; because I have given it unto the children of Lot for a possession.}}
  
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===450 A.D.===
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Biblical mosaics discovered in Israel's ancient city of Huqoq (located in the Galileean region) show numerous Biblical stories, including Samson, Noah's Ark, Jonah being swallowed, the parting of the Red Sea, building of the tower of Babel, and spies sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. In the words of FOX News' James Rogers, "Experts say that the wealth of mosaics show that Jewish life in the surrounding village flourished during Christian rule in the fifth century A.D. This challenges a widely held view that Jewish settlement in the area declined during that period."<ref>Rogers, James (2018, July 12). "[https://www.foxnews.com/science/stunning-biblical-spies-mosaic-discovered-in-israel Stunning Biblical 'Spies' Mosaic Discovered in Israel.]" ''FOX News.''<br>Miller, Carly (2018, June 9). "[https://uncnews.unc.edu/2018/07/09/unparalleled-mosaics-discovered-by-unc-chapel-hill-archaeologist-and-team-provide-new-clues-on-life-in-an-ancient-galilean-jewish-village/ Unparalleled Mosaics Discovered by UNC-Chapel Hill Archaeologist and Team Provide New Clues on Life in an Ancient Galilean Jewish Village.]" ''University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.''</ref>
 +
[[File:Huqoq Inscription and face.jpg|Huqoq Inscription and face|150px]]
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===600 A.D.===
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The prize find of the Ophel excavations by Eilat Mazar was a gold medallion engraved with Jewish holy symbols, a menorah (candlestick) and Torah scroll. The treasure dates to the 7th century A.D. and shows that practicing Jews were in Israel 1,400 years ago.<ref>Ngo, Robin (2014, September 29). "[https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-sites-places/jerusalem/king-hezekiah-in-the-bible-royal-seal-of-hezekiah-comes-to-light/ Ophel Treasure Goes on Display at the Israel Museum.]" ''Biblical Archaeology Society.''</ref>
  
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[[File:OphelTreasure.JPG|The Ophel Treasure, a gold medallion engraved with a menorah and Torah scroll. Photo by Ouria Tadmor/Eilat Mazar. See King Hezekiah in the Bible: Royal Seal of Hezekiah Comes to Light for a larger resolution image.|150px]]
  
 
===Zionist Movement===
 
===Zionist Movement===

Revision as of 09:12, 12 June 2019

Flag of Israel

Historical Context

2120 B.C.: Abraham

See also Bible Chronology

It is important to note that God gave land, not just to Israel, but also to neighboring nations such as the Edomites (descended from Esau, Jacob's brother), the Ammonites, and the Moabites (both descended from Lot, Abraham's brother). The land was promised to Abraham over 4,000 years ago, around 2120 B.C., during the time that he lived in Canaan. Thus Abraham and his descendants, including Jacob (surnamed Israel) lived in Canaan, now modern-day Israel, from approximately 2120 B.C. to 1925 B.C. Following a 430-year sojourn in Egypt (Exodus 12:40-41), they would return to Israel around 1495 B.C.

450 A.D.

Biblical mosaics discovered in Israel's ancient city of Huqoq (located in the Galileean region) show numerous Biblical stories, including Samson, Noah's Ark, Jonah being swallowed, the parting of the Red Sea, building of the tower of Babel, and spies sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. In the words of FOX News' James Rogers, "Experts say that the wealth of mosaics show that Jewish life in the surrounding village flourished during Christian rule in the fifth century A.D. This challenges a widely held view that Jewish settlement in the area declined during that period."[1] Huqoq Inscription and face

600 A.D.

The prize find of the Ophel excavations by Eilat Mazar was a gold medallion engraved with Jewish holy symbols, a menorah (candlestick) and Torah scroll. The treasure dates to the 7th century A.D. and shows that practicing Jews were in Israel 1,400 years ago.[2]

The Ophel Treasure, a gold medallion engraved with a menorah and Torah scroll. Photo by Ouria Tadmor/Eilat Mazar. See King Hezekiah in the Bible: Royal Seal of Hezekiah Comes to Light for a larger resolution image.

Zionist Movement

Isaac Leib Goldberg helped found the Jewish National Fund in 1901 to purchase and develop land in what was then Palestine. In 1903 the first plot of land for the Jewish National Fund was given as a gift by Goldberg for growing olives in Israel.[3] In 1908 he purchased the first plot of land on Mount Scopus, Jerusalem for the future Hebrew University. Isaac Leib Goldberg also helped create the Geulah Company for private land acquisition and sale in Israel, and the Carmel Company for sale of Jewish wine.[4]

Upon his death on September 14, 1935 in Switzerland,[5] Goldberg bequeathed one half of his estate to the Jewish National Fund for the promotion of Hebrew language and culture. This donation, known as the Isaac Leib and Rachel Goldberg Fund, amounted to roughly $30 million by today's standards.[6]

Goldberg was buried in Trumpeldor, Tel Aviv, Israel.[5]

World War I

The British Empire captured Palestine, now modern-day Israel, during World War I from the German-led Ottoman Empire as part of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign (1915-18). This would mark a roughly 30-year period of British rule from 1923-48.

Intermediate Period

The British Government had plans to create an Israelite state since November 2, 1917 when the Balfour Declaration was issued, per the British Mandate for Palestine (1923-1948). Immediately before the outbreak of World War II, a major Arab uprising against the British Empire running Palestine and the growing influx of Jewish immigrants occurred, the 1936-39 Arab revolt in Palestine.

World War II

As the result of Hitler's genocide against the Jewish people, and the failure of Europe to protect dispersed Jews during World War II, the European Union November 29, 1947 adopted a partition plan creating the state of Israel alongside a separate Palestinian state with the Jerusalem-Bethlehem region an internationally-administrated separate enclave.[7]

1947-48 Wars

The British attempt to create an independent Israeli state quickly resulted in warfare, as Arab communities attacked Jewish communities during the 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine. Immediately upon expiration of the British Mandate of Palestine as the state of Israel was created, all of the neighboring Arab states attacked Israel; Egypt, Transjordan, Iraq, and Syria, resulting in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Israel won and expanded its borders, resulting in the 1949 Armistice Agreements.

1967 Six-Day War

Egypt, in defiance of the armistice agreements, blocked the Straits of Tiran to stop Israelite shipping to the Mediterranean, resulting in Israel invading the Sinai Peninsula in 1956; what is known as the Suez Crisis. In 1957 Israel withdrew its forces from the Sinai Peninsula, and the United Nations Emergency Force was stationed there to prevent further conflict.

In 1967 Egypt forced U.N. forces out of the Sinai Peninsula and temporarily reoccupied it. When Egypt once again opted to block the Straits of Tiran in 1967, and mobilized its forces along the Israeli border, Israel retaliated by attacking Egyptian airfields. Both Syria and Jordan joined Egypt in attacking Israel, resulting in Israel conquering the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Egypt, the West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.

Attempts by Egypt to retake the Sinai Peninsula were unsuccessful, see the War of Attrition (1967-70) and Yom Kippur War (1973). However, Egypt and Israel began peace agreements in 1975 per the Sinai Interim Agreement, resulting in reopening of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. Israel then gave back the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt from 1979-82 as part of a peace agreement limiting the number of Egyptian military forces that can be stationed there.

Sources

  1. Rogers, James (2018, July 12). "Stunning Biblical 'Spies' Mosaic Discovered in Israel." FOX News.
    Miller, Carly (2018, June 9). "Unparalleled Mosaics Discovered by UNC-Chapel Hill Archaeologist and Team Provide New Clues on Life in an Ancient Galilean Jewish Village." University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  2. Ngo, Robin (2014, September 29). "Ophel Treasure Goes on Display at the Israel Museum." Biblical Archaeology Society.
  3. "Our History". Jewish National Fund. Retrieved 2015-01-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    Zvi Shilony, Ideology and Settlement; The Jewish National Fund, 1897-1914, Magnes Press (1998), 119-121.
  4. Goldberg, Isaac L. (1904). "Zionism – Appeal for Assistance". Virtual Judaica. Retrieved 2015-01-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 Slutsky, Yehuda. "Sakiai". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 2015-01-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    Anne Blejer, Hatte (2013-03-04). "Yitzchak Leib Goldberg". Geni. MyHeritage. Retrieved 2015-01-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. style="background: #F0F2F5; font-size:87%; padding:0.2em 0.3em; text-align:center; " |
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    Author link 6author-link6 authorlink6 author6-link subjectlink6 author6link subject-link6 subject6-link subject6link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

    Pageoptional
    Author link 7author-link7 authorlink7 author7-link subjectlink7 author7link subject-link7 subject7-link subject7link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

    Pageoptional
    Author link 8author-link8 authorlink8 author8-link subjectlink8 author8link subject-link8 subject8-link subject8link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

    Pageoptional
    Author link 9author-link9 authorlink9 author9-link subjectlink9 author9link subject-link9 subject9-link subject9link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

    Pageoptional
    URL access dateaccess-date accessdate

    The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

    Stringoptional
    Original yearorig-year origyear

    Original year of publication; provide specifics

    Stringoptional
    Last name of second editoreditor-last2 editor-surname2 editor2 editor2-last editor2-surname

    The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'

    Stringoptional
    First name of second editoreditor-first2 editor-given2 editor2-first editor2-given

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'

    Stringoptional
    Link for second editoreditor-link2 editor2-link editorlink2 editor2link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second editor

    Pageoptional
    Mask for second editoreditor-mask2 editormask2 editor2-mask editor2mask

    Replaces the name of the second editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead

    Stringoptional
    Last name of third editoreditor-last3 editor-surname3 editor3 editor3-last editor3-surname

    The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'

    Stringoptional
    First name of third editoreditor-first3 editor-given3 editor3-first editor3-given

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'

    Stringoptional
    Link for third editoreditor-link3 editor3-link editorlink3 editor3link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third editor

    Pageoptional
    Mask for third editoreditor-mask3 editormask3 editor3-mask editor3mask

    Replaces the name of the third editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead

    Stringoptional
    Last name of fourth editoreditor-last4 editor-surname4 editor4 editor4-last editor4-surname

    The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'

    Stringoptional
    First name of fourth editoreditor-first4 editor-given4 editor4-first editor4-given

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'

    Stringoptional
    Link for fourth editoreditor-link4 editor4-link editorlink4 editor4link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editor

    Pageoptional
    Mask for fourth editoreditor-mask4 editormask4 editor4-mask editor4mask

    Replaces the name of the fourth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead

    Stringoptional
    Last name of fifth editoreditor-last5 editor-surname5 editor5 editor5-last editor5-surname

    The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'

    Stringoptional
    First name of fifth editoreditor-first5 editor-given5 editor5-first editor5-given

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'

    Stringoptional
    Link for fifth editoreditor-link5 editor5-link editorlink5 editor5link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editor

    Pageoptional
    Mask for fifth editoreditor-mask5 editormask5 editor5-mask editor5mask

    Replaces the name of the fifth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead

    Stringoptional
    Last name of sixth editoreditor-last6 editor-surname6 editor6 editor6-last editor6-surname

    The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'

    Stringoptional
    First name of sixth editoreditor-first6 editor-given6 editor6-first editor6-given

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'

    Stringoptional
    Link for sixth editoreditor-link6 editor6-link editorlink6 editor6link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor

    Pageoptional
    Mask for sixth editoreditor-mask6 editormask6 editor6-mask editor6mask

    Replaces the name of the sixth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead

    Stringoptional
    Last name of seventh editoreditor-last7 editor-surname7 editor7 editor7-last editor7-surname

    The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'

    Stringoptional
    First name of seventh editoreditor-first7 editor-given7 editor7-first editor7-given

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'

    Stringoptional
    Link for seventh editoreditor-link7 editor7-link editorlink7 editor7link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor

    Pageoptional
    Mask for seventh editoreditor-mask7 editormask7 editor7-mask editor7mask

    Replaces the name of the seventh editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead

    Stringoptional
    Last name of eighth editoreditor-last8 editor-surname8 editor8 editor8-last editor8-surname

    The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'

    Stringoptional
    First name of eighth editoreditor-first8 editor-given8 editor8-first editor8-given

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'

    Stringoptional
    Link for eighth editoreditor-link8 editor8-link editorlink8 editor8link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor

    Pageoptional
    Mask for eighth editoreditor-mask8 editormask8 editor8-mask editor8mask

    Replaces the name of the eighth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead

    Stringoptional
    Last name of ninth editoreditor-last9 editor-surname9 editor9 editor9-last editor9-surname

    The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'

    Stringoptional
    First name of ninth editoreditor-first9 editor-given9 editor9-first editor9-given

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'

    Stringoptional
    Link for ninth editoreditor-link9 editor9-link editorlink9 editor9link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor

    Pageoptional
    Mask for ninth editoreditor-mask9 editormask9 editor9-mask editor9mask

    Replaces the name of the ninth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead

    Stringoptional
    Display Editorsdisplay-editors displayeditors

    Controls the number of editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of editors, set display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors in a citation. By default, all editors are displayed. |display-editors=etal displays all editors in the list followed by et al.

    Stringoptional
    Translator last name 2translator-last2 translator2 translator2-last

    The surname of the second translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator first name 2translator-first2 translator2-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator last name 3translator-last3 translator3 translator3-last

    The surname of the third translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator first name 3translator-first3 translator3-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator last name 4translator-last4 translator4 translator4-last

    The surname of the fourth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator first name 4translator-first4 translator4-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator last name 5translator-last5 translator5 translator5-last

    The surname of the fifth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator first name 5translator-first5 translator5-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator last name 6translator-last6 translator6 translator6-last

    The surname of the sixth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator first name 6translator-first6 translator6-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator last name 7translator-last7 translator7 translator7-last

    The surname of the seventh translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator first name 7translator-first7 translator7-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator last name 8translator-last8 translator8 translator8-last

    The surname of the eighth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator first name 8translator-first8 translator8-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator last name 9translator-last9 translator9 translator9-last

    The surname of the ninth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator first name 9translator-first9 translator9-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

    Stringoptional
    Translator linktranslator-link translator-link1 translator1-link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.

    Pageoptional
    Translator link 2translator-link2 translator2-link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second translator.

    Pageoptional
    Translator link 3translator-link3 translator3-link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third translator.

    Pageoptional
    Translator link 4translator-link4 translator4-link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth translator.

    Pageoptional
    Translator link 5translator-link5 translator5-link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth translator.

    Pageoptional
    Translator link 6translator-link6 translator6-link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth translator.

    Pageoptional
    Translator link 7translator-link7 translator7-link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh translator.

    Pageoptional
    Translator link 8translator-link8 translator8-link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth translator.

    Pageoptional
    Translator link 9translator-link9 translator9-link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth translator.

    Pageoptional
    Chapter URLchapter-url chapterurl contribution-url section-url contributionurl sectionurl

    The URL of the online location where the text of the chapter can be found

    Stringoptional
    Format of Chapter URLchapter-format contribution-format section-format

    Format of the work referred to by chapter-url; displayed in parentheses after chapter. HTML is implied and should not be specified.

    Example
    PDF, DOC, or XLS
    Stringoptional
    DOI broken datedoi-broken-date doi_brokendate

    The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

    Stringoptional
    URL access levelurl-access

    Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')

    Stringoptional
    Archive URLarchive-url archiveurl

    The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'

    Stringoptional
    Archive Formatarchive-format

    Format of the Archive

    Stringoptional
    Archive datearchive-date archivedate

    Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

    Stringoptional
    Dead URLdead-url deadurl

    If set to 'no', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live

    Stringoptional
    Lay URLlay-url lay-summary laysummary layurl

    URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source

    Stringoptional
    Lay sourcelay-source laysource

    Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

    Stringoptional
    Lay datelay-date laydate

    Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

    Stringoptional
    Last author ampersandlast-author-amp lastauthoramp

    When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'

    Stringoptional
    Viavia

    Aggregate or database provider, when different from the Publisher. Typically used for Ebooks.

    Example
    Open Edition, JSTOR
    Stringoptional
    Bibcode access levelbibcode-access

    If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.

    Stringoptional
    DOI access leveldoi-access

    If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.

    Stringoptional
    HDL access levelhdl-access

    If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.

    Stringoptional
    Jstor access leveljstor-access

    If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.

    Stringoptional
    OpenLibrary access levelol-access

    If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.

    Stringoptional
    OSTI access levelosti-access

    If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.

    Stringoptional
    Issueissue number

    Issue number. This parameter is not supported by and should generally not be used with cite book. Consider that a different cite template may be more appropriate, such as cite magazine or cite journal. See Help:Citation_Style_1#Pages.

    Stringoptional
    Coauthorcoauthor

    Coauthor

    Stringdeprecated
    Coauthorscoauthors

    Coauthors

    Stringdeprecated
    Authors listauthors people host credits

    List of authors as a free form list. Use of this parameter is discouraged, "lastn" to "firstn" are preferable. Warning: do not use if last or any of its aliases are used.

    Stringoptional
    City of Publicationcity

    Where published

    Stringdeprecated
    Agencyagency

    Unusual in cite book. Use if an agency is needed in addition to publisher, etc.

    Stringoptional
    Departmentdepartment

    Unusual in cite book.

    Unknownoptional
    Date formatdf

    Sets rendered dates to the specified format

    Stringoptional
  7. "UN Partition Plan - Resolution 181 (1947)." Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs.