Difference between revisions of "Israel"

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==Historical Context==
 
==Historical Context==
  
===Antiquity===
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===2120 B.C.: Abraham===
 
 
====The Bible====
 
 
::''See also [https://biblestrength.com/Bible_Chronology Bible Chronology]''
 
::''See also [https://biblestrength.com/Bible_Chronology Bible Chronology]''
 
It is important to note that God gave land, not just to Israel, but also to neighboring nations such as the Edomites (descended from Esau, Jacob's brother), the Ammonites, and the Moabites (both descended from Lot, Abraham's brother). The land was promised to Abraham over 4,000 years ago, [https://biblestrength.com/Bible_Chronology around 2120 B.C.], during the time that he lived in Canaan. Thus Abraham and his descendants, including Jacob (surnamed Israel) lived in Canaan, now modern-day Israel, from approximately 2120 B.C. to 1925 B.C. Following a 430-year sojourn in Egypt (Exodus 12:40-41), they would return to Israel around 1495 B.C.
 
It is important to note that God gave land, not just to Israel, but also to neighboring nations such as the Edomites (descended from Esau, Jacob's brother), the Ammonites, and the Moabites (both descended from Lot, Abraham's brother). The land was promised to Abraham over 4,000 years ago, [https://biblestrength.com/Bible_Chronology around 2120 B.C.], during the time that he lived in Canaan. Thus Abraham and his descendants, including Jacob (surnamed Israel) lived in Canaan, now modern-day Israel, from approximately 2120 B.C. to 1925 B.C. Following a 430-year sojourn in Egypt (Exodus 12:40-41), they would return to Israel around 1495 B.C.
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Deuteronomy 2:17-19 That the Lord spake unto me, saying, Thou art to pass over through Ar, the coast of Moab, this day: And when thou comest nigh over against the children of Ammon, distress them not, nor meddle with them: for I will not give thee of the land of the children of Ammon any possession; because I have given it unto the children of Lot for a possession.}}
 
Deuteronomy 2:17-19 That the Lord spake unto me, saying, Thou art to pass over through Ar, the coast of Moab, this day: And when thou comest nigh over against the children of Ammon, distress them not, nor meddle with them: for I will not give thee of the land of the children of Ammon any possession; because I have given it unto the children of Lot for a possession.}}
  
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===450 A.D.===
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Biblical mosaics discovered in Israel's ancient city of Huqoq (located in the Galileean region) show numerous Biblical stories, including Samson, Noah's Ark, Jonah being swallowed, the parting of the Red Sea, building of the tower of Babel, and spies sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. In the words of FOX News' James Rogers, "Experts say that the wealth of mosaics show that Jewish life in the surrounding village flourished during Christian rule in the fifth century A.D. This challenges a widely held view that Jewish settlement in the area declined during that period."<ref>Rogers, James (2018, July 12). "[https://www.foxnews.com/science/stunning-biblical-spies-mosaic-discovered-in-israel Stunning Biblical 'Spies' Mosaic Discovered in Israel.]" ''FOX News.''<br>Miller, Carly (2018, June 9). "[https://uncnews.unc.edu/2018/07/09/unparalleled-mosaics-discovered-by-unc-chapel-hill-archaeologist-and-team-provide-new-clues-on-life-in-an-ancient-galilean-jewish-village/ Unparalleled Mosaics Discovered by UNC-Chapel Hill Archaeologist and Team Provide New Clues on Life in an Ancient Galilean Jewish Village.]" ''University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.''</ref>
 +
[[File:Huqoq Inscription and face.jpg|Huqoq Inscription and face|150px]]
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 +
===600 A.D.===
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 +
The prize find of the Ophel excavations by Eilat Mazar was a gold medallion engraved with Jewish holy symbols, a menorah (candlestick) and Torah scroll. The treasure dates to the 7th century A.D. and shows that practicing Jews were in Israel 1,400 years ago.<ref>Ngo, Robin (2014, September 29). "[https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-sites-places/jerusalem/king-hezekiah-in-the-bible-royal-seal-of-hezekiah-comes-to-light/ Ophel Treasure Goes on Display at the Israel Museum.]" ''Biblical Archaeology Society.''</ref>
  
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[[File:OphelTreasure.JPG|The Ophel Treasure, a gold medallion engraved with a menorah and Torah scroll. Photo by Ouria Tadmor/Eilat Mazar. See King Hezekiah in the Bible: Royal Seal of Hezekiah Comes to Light for a larger resolution image.|150px]]
  
 
===Zionist Movement===
 
===Zionist Movement===

Revision as of 09:12, 12 June 2019

Flag of Israel

Historical Context

2120 B.C.: Abraham

See also Bible Chronology

It is important to note that God gave land, not just to Israel, but also to neighboring nations such as the Edomites (descended from Esau, Jacob's brother), the Ammonites, and the Moabites (both descended from Lot, Abraham's brother). The land was promised to Abraham over 4,000 years ago, around 2120 B.C., during the time that he lived in Canaan. Thus Abraham and his descendants, including Jacob (surnamed Israel) lived in Canaan, now modern-day Israel, from approximately 2120 B.C. to 1925 B.C. Following a 430-year sojourn in Egypt (Exodus 12:40-41), they would return to Israel around 1495 B.C.

Genesis 15:18-21 In the same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates: The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites, And the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Rephaims, And the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and the Jebusites.

Deuteronomy 2:1-5 Then we turned, and took our journey into the wilderness by the way of the Red sea, as the Lord spake unto me: and we compassed mount Seir many days. And the Lord spake unto me, saying, Ye have compassed this mountain long enough: turn you northward. And command thou the people, saying, Ye are to pass through the coast of your brethren the children of Esau, which dwell in Seir; and they shall be afraid of you: take ye good heed unto yourselves therefore: Meddle not with them; for I will not give you of their land, no, not so much as a foot breadth; because I have given mount Seir unto Esau for a possession.

Deuteronomy 2:17-19 That the Lord spake unto me, saying, Thou art to pass over through Ar, the coast of Moab, this day: And when thou comest nigh over against the children of Ammon, distress them not, nor meddle with them: for I will not give thee of the land of the children of Ammon any possession; because I have given it unto the children of Lot for a possession.

450 A.D.

Biblical mosaics discovered in Israel's ancient city of Huqoq (located in the Galileean region) show numerous Biblical stories, including Samson, Noah's Ark, Jonah being swallowed, the parting of the Red Sea, building of the tower of Babel, and spies sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. In the words of FOX News' James Rogers, "Experts say that the wealth of mosaics show that Jewish life in the surrounding village flourished during Christian rule in the fifth century A.D. This challenges a widely held view that Jewish settlement in the area declined during that period."[1] Huqoq Inscription and face

600 A.D.

The prize find of the Ophel excavations by Eilat Mazar was a gold medallion engraved with Jewish holy symbols, a menorah (candlestick) and Torah scroll. The treasure dates to the 7th century A.D. and shows that practicing Jews were in Israel 1,400 years ago.[2]

The Ophel Treasure, a gold medallion engraved with a menorah and Torah scroll. Photo by Ouria Tadmor/Eilat Mazar. See King Hezekiah in the Bible: Royal Seal of Hezekiah Comes to Light for a larger resolution image.

Zionist Movement

Isaac Leib Goldberg helped found the Jewish National Fund in 1901 to purchase and develop land in what was then Palestine. In 1903 the first plot of land for the Jewish National Fund was given as a gift by Goldberg for growing olives in Israel.[3] In 1908 he purchased the first plot of land on Mount Scopus, Jerusalem for the future Hebrew University. Isaac Leib Goldberg also helped create the Geulah Company for private land acquisition and sale in Israel, and the Carmel Company for sale of Jewish wine.[4]

Upon his death on September 14, 1935 in Switzerland,[5] Goldberg bequeathed one half of his estate to the Jewish National Fund for the promotion of Hebrew language and culture. This donation, known as the Isaac Leib and Rachel Goldberg Fund, amounted to roughly $30 million by today's standards.[6]

Goldberg was buried in Trumpeldor, Tel Aviv, Israel.[5]

World War I

The British Empire captured Palestine, now modern-day Israel, during World War I from the German-led Ottoman Empire as part of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign (1915-18). This would mark a roughly 30-year period of British rule from 1923-48.

Intermediate Period

The British Government had plans to create an Israelite state since November 2, 1917 when the Balfour Declaration was issued, per the British Mandate for Palestine (1923-1948). Immediately before the outbreak of World War II, a major Arab uprising against the British Empire running Palestine and the growing influx of Jewish immigrants occurred, the 1936-39 Arab revolt in Palestine.

World War II

As the result of Hitler's genocide against the Jewish people, and the failure of Europe to protect dispersed Jews during World War II, the European Union November 29, 1947 adopted a partition plan creating the state of Israel alongside a separate Palestinian state with the Jerusalem-Bethlehem region an internationally-administrated separate enclave.[7]

1947-48 Wars

The British attempt to create an independent Israeli state quickly resulted in warfare, as Arab communities attacked Jewish communities during the 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine. Immediately upon expiration of the British Mandate of Palestine as the state of Israel was created, all of the neighboring Arab states attacked Israel; Egypt, Transjordan, Iraq, and Syria, resulting in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Israel won and expanded its borders, resulting in the 1949 Armistice Agreements.

1967 Six-Day War

Egypt, in defiance of the armistice agreements, blocked the Straits of Tiran to stop Israelite shipping to the Mediterranean, resulting in Israel invading the Sinai Peninsula in 1956; what is known as the Suez Crisis. In 1957 Israel withdrew its forces from the Sinai Peninsula, and the United Nations Emergency Force was stationed there to prevent further conflict.

In 1967 Egypt forced U.N. forces out of the Sinai Peninsula and temporarily reoccupied it. When Egypt once again opted to block the Straits of Tiran in 1967, and mobilized its forces along the Israeli border, Israel retaliated by attacking Egyptian airfields. Both Syria and Jordan joined Egypt in attacking Israel, resulting in Israel conquering the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Egypt, the West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.

Attempts by Egypt to retake the Sinai Peninsula were unsuccessful, see the War of Attrition (1967-70) and Yom Kippur War (1973). However, Egypt and Israel began peace agreements in 1975 per the Sinai Interim Agreement, resulting in reopening of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. Israel then gave back the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt from 1979-82 as part of a peace agreement limiting the number of Egyptian military forces that can be stationed there.

Sources

  1. Rogers, James (2018, July 12). "Stunning Biblical 'Spies' Mosaic Discovered in Israel." FOX News.
    Miller, Carly (2018, June 9). "Unparalleled Mosaics Discovered by UNC-Chapel Hill Archaeologist and Team Provide New Clues on Life in an Ancient Galilean Jewish Village." University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  2. Ngo, Robin (2014, September 29). "Ophel Treasure Goes on Display at the Israel Museum." Biblical Archaeology Society.
  3. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
    Zvi Shilony, Ideology and Settlement; The Jewish National Fund, 1897-1914, Magnes Press (1998), 119-121.
  4. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  5. 5.0 5.1 {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
    {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  6. style="background: #F0F2F5; font-size:87%; padding:0.2em 0.3em; text-align:center; " | TemplateData

    Template:TemplateData header

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needs to include terminating punctuation", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "quotation" ] }, "ref": { "label": "Ref", "description": "An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates", "type": "string" }, "name-list-format": { "label": "Name list format", "description": "Accepts the single keyword 'vanc' to emulate Vancouver Style author / editor name-lists.", "type": "string" }, "mode": { "label": "Mode", "description": "Sets separator and terminal punctuation to the style named in the assigned value; allowable values are: 'cs1' or 'cs2'", "type": "string" }, "postscript": { "label": "Postscript", "description": "The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined; to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'", "type": "string", "default": "." }, "registration": { "label": "Registration", "description": "For online sources that require registration, set to 'yes' (or 'y', or 'true'); superseded by subscription if both are set", "type": "string" }, "subscription": { "label": "Subscription", "description": "For online sources that require subscription, set to 'yes' (or 'y', or 'true'); supersedes registration if both are set", "type": "string" }, "author-mask": { "label": "Author mask", "description": "Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "authormask", "authormask1", "author1-mask", "author-mask1", "author1mask" ] }, "author-mask2": { "label": "Author mask 2", "description": "Replaces the name of the second author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "authormask2", "author2-mask", "author2mask" ] }, "author-mask3": { "label": "Author mask 3", "description": "Replaces the name of the third author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "authormask3", "author3-mask", "author3mask" ] }, "author-mask4": { "label": "Author mask 4", "description": "Replaces the name of the fourth author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "authormask4", "author4-mask", "author4mask" ] }, "author-mask5": { "label": "Author mask 5", "description": "Replaces the name of the fifth author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "authormask5", "author5-mask", "author5mask" ] }, "author-mask6": { "label": "Author mask 6", "description": "Replaces the name of the sixth author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "authormask6", "author6-mask", "author6mask" ] }, "author-mask7": { "label": "Author mask 7", "description": "Replaces the name of the seventh author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "authormask7", "author7-mask", "author7mask" ] }, "author-mask8": { "label": "Author mask 8", "description": "Replaces the name of the eighth author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "authormask8", "author8-mask", "author8mask" ] }, "author-mask9": { "label": "Author mask 9", "description": "Replaces the name of the ninth author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "authormask9", "author9-mask", "author9mask" ] }, "display-authors": { "label": "Display authors", "description": "number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used", "type": "number", "aliases": [ "displayauthors" ] }, "author-link": { "label": "Author link", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "authorlink", "subjectlink", "subject-link", "authorlink1", "author-link1", "author1-link", "subjectlink1", "author1link", "subject-link1", "subject1-link", "subject1link" ] }, "author-link2": { "label": "Author link 2", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "authorlink2", "author2-link", "subjectlink2", "author2link", "subject-link2", "subject2-link", "subject2link" ] }, "author-link3": { "label": "Author link 3", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "authorlink3", "author3-link", "subjectlink3", "author3link", "subject-link3", "subject3-link", "subject3link" ] }, "author-link4": { "label": "Author link 4", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "authorlink4", "author4-link", "subjectlink4", "author4link", "subject-link4", "subject4-link", "subject4link" ] }, "author-link5": { "label": "Author link 5", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "authorlink5", "author5-link", "subjectlink5", "author5link", "subject-link5", "subject5-link", "subject5link" ] }, "author-link6": { "label": "Author link 6", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "authorlink6", "author6-link", "subjectlink6", "author6link", "subject-link6", "subject6-link", "subject6link" ] }, "author-link7": { "label": "Author link 7", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "authorlink7", "author7-link", "subjectlink7", "author7link", "subject-link7", "subject7-link", "subject7link" ] }, "author-link8": { "label": "Author link 8", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "authorlink8", "author8-link", "subjectlink8", "author8link", "subject-link8", "subject8-link", "subject8link" ] }, "author-link9": { "label": "Author link 9", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "authorlink9", "author9-link", "subjectlink9", "author9link", "subject-link9", "subject9-link", "subject9link" ] }, "access-date": { "label": "URL access date", "description": "The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "accessdate" ] }, "orig-year": { "label": "Original year", "description": "Original year of publication; provide specifics", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "origyear" ] }, "editor-last2": { "label": "Last name of second editor", "description": "The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-surname2", "editor2", "editor2-last", "editor2-surname" ] }, "editor-first2": { "label": "First name of second editor", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-given2", "editor2-first", "editor2-given" ] }, "editor-link2": { "label": "Link for second editor", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second editor", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor2-link", "editorlink2", "editor2link" ] }, "editor-mask2": { "label": "Mask for second editor", "description": "Replaces the name of the second editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editormask2", "editor2-mask", "editor2mask" ] }, "editor-last3": { "label": "Last name of third editor", "description": "The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-surname3", "editor3", "editor3-last", "editor3-surname" ] }, "editor-first3": { "label": "First name of third editor", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-given3", "editor3-first", "editor3-given" ] }, "editor-link3": { "label": "Link for third editor", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third editor", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor3-link", "editorlink3", "editor3link" ] }, "editor-mask3": { "label": "Mask for third editor", "description": "Replaces the name of the third editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editormask3", "editor3-mask", "editor3mask" ] }, "editor-last4": { "label": "Last name of fourth editor", "description": "The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-surname4", "editor4", "editor4-last", "editor4-surname" ] }, "editor-first4": { "label": "First name of fourth editor", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-given4", "editor4-first", "editor4-given" ] }, "editor-link4": { "label": "Link for fourth editor", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editor", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor4-link", "editorlink4", "editor4link" ] }, "editor-mask4": { "label": "Mask for fourth editor", "description": "Replaces the name of the fourth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editormask4", "editor4-mask", "editor4mask" ] }, "editor-last5": { "label": "Last name of fifth editor", "description": "The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-surname5", "editor5", "editor5-last", "editor5-surname" ] }, "editor-first5": { "label": "First name of fifth editor", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-given5", "editor5-first", "editor5-given" ] }, "editor-link5": { "label": "Link for fifth editor", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editor", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor5-link", "editorlink5", "editor5link" ] }, "editor-mask5": { "label": "Mask for fifth editor", "description": "Replaces the name of the fifth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editormask5", "editor5-mask", "editor5mask" ] }, "editor-last6": { "label": "Last name of sixth editor", "description": "The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-surname6", "editor6", "editor6-last", "editor6-surname" ] }, "editor-first6": { "label": "First name of sixth editor", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-given6", "editor6-first", "editor6-given" ] }, "editor-link6": { "label": "Link for sixth editor", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor6-link", "editorlink6", "editor6link" ] }, "editor-mask6": { "label": "Mask for sixth editor", "description": "Replaces the name of the sixth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editormask6", "editor6-mask", "editor6mask" ] }, "editor-last7": { "label": "Last name of seventh editor", "description": "The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-surname7", "editor7", "editor7-last", "editor7-surname" ] }, "editor-first7": { "label": "First name of seventh editor", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-given7", "editor7-first", "editor7-given" ] }, "editor-link7": { "label": "Link for seventh editor", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor7-link", "editorlink7", "editor7link" ] }, "editor-mask7": { "label": "Mask for seventh editor", "description": "Replaces the name of the seventh editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editormask7", "editor7-mask", "editor7mask" ] }, "editor-last8": { "label": "Last name of eighth editor", "description": "The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-surname8", "editor8", "editor8-last", "editor8-surname" ] }, "editor-first8": { "label": "First name of eighth editor", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-given8", "editor8-first", "editor8-given" ] }, "editor-link8": { "label": "Link for eighth editor", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor8-link", "editorlink8", "editor8link" ] }, "editor-mask8": { "label": "Mask for eighth editor", "description": "Replaces the name of the eighth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editormask8", "editor8-mask", "editor8mask" ] }, "editor-last9": { "label": "Last name of ninth editor", "description": "The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-surname9", "editor9", "editor9-last", "editor9-surname" ] }, "editor-first9": { "label": "First name of ninth editor", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editor-given9", "editor9-first", "editor9-given" ] }, "editor-link9": { "label": "Link for ninth editor", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor9-link", "editorlink9", "editor9link" ] }, "editor-mask9": { "label": "Mask for ninth editor", "description": "Replaces the name of the ninth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "editormask9", "editor9-mask", "editor9mask" ] }, "chapter-url": { "label": "Chapter URL", "description": "The URL of the online location where the text of the chapter can be found", "aliases": [ "chapterurl", "contribution-url", "section-url", "contributionurl", "sectionurl" ], "type": "string" }, "doi-broken-date": { "label": "DOI broken date", "description": "The date that the DOI was determined to be broken", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "doi_brokendate" ] }, "archive-url": { "label": "Archive URL", "description": "The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "archiveurl" ] }, "archive-date": { "label": "Archive date", "description": "Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "archivedate" ] }, "dead-url": { "label": "Dead URL", "description": "If set to 'no', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "deadurl" ] }, "lay-url": { "label": "Lay URL", "description": "URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source", "aliases": [ "lay-summary", "laysummary", "layurl" ], "type": "string" }, "lay-source": { "label": "Lay source", "description": "Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "laysource" ] }, "lay-date": { "label": "Lay date", "description": "Date of the summary; displays in parentheses", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "laydate" ] }, "last-author-amp": { "label": "Last author ampersand", "description": "When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "lastauthoramp" ] }, "via": { "description": "Aggregate or database provider, when different from the Publisher. Typically used for Ebooks.", "example": "Open Edition, JSTOR ", "type": "string" }, "url-access": { "label": "URL access level", "description": "Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')", "type": "string" }, "bibcode-access": { "label": "Bibcode access level", "description": "If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.", "type": "string" }, "doi-access": { "label": "DOI access level", "description": "If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.", "type": "string" }, "hdl-access": { "label": "HDL access level", "description": "If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.", "type": "string" }, "jstor-access": { "label": "Jstor access level", "description": "If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.", "type": "string" }, "ol-access": { "label": "OpenLibrary access level", "description": "If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.", "type": "string" }, "osti-access": { "label": "OSTI access level", "description": "If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.", "type": "string" }, "ismn": { "aliases": [ "ISMN" ], "label": "ISMN", "description": "International Standard Music Number; Use the ISMN actually printed on or in the work. Hyphens or spaces in the ISMN are optional.", "type": "string", "example": "979-0-9016791-7-7" }, "eissn": { "aliases": [ "EISSN" ], "label": "EISSN", "description": "International Standard Serial Number for the electronic media of a serial publication; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space.", "example": "2009-0048", "type": "string" }, "editors": { "label": "Editors list", "description": "Free-form list of editor names; use of this parameter is discouraged", "deprecated": "For multiple editors, use editor-last1, editor-first1 through editor-lastn, editor-firstn" }, "translator-last": { "label": "Translator last name", "description": "The surname of the translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.", "aliases": [ "translator", "translator-last1", "translator1", "translator1-last" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-first": { "label": "Translator first name", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.", "aliases": [ "translator1-first", "translator-first1" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-link": { "label": "Translator link", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "translator-link1", "translator1-link" ] }, "translator-last2": { "label": "Translator last name 2", "description": "The surname of the second translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator2", "translator2-last" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-first2": { "label": "Translator first name 2", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator2-first" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-last3": { "label": "Translator last name 3", "description": "The surname of the third translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator3", "translator3-last" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-first3": { "label": "Translator first name 3", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator3-first" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-last4": { "label": "Translator last name 4", "description": "The surname of the fourth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator4", "translator4-last" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-first4": { "label": "Translator first name 4", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator4-first" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-last5": { "label": "Translator last name 5", "description": "The surname of the fifth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator5", "translator5-last" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-first5": { "label": "Translator first name 5", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator5-first" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-last6": { "label": "Translator last name 6", "description": "The surname of the sixth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator6", "translator6-last" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-first6": { "label": "Translator first name 6", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator6-first" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-last7": { "label": "Translator last name 7", "description": "The surname of the seventh translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator7", "translator7-last" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-first7": { "label": "Translator first name 7", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator7-first" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-last8": { "label": "Translator last name 8", "description": "The surname of the eighth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator8", "translator8-last" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-first8": { "label": "Translator first name 8", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator8-first" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-last9": { "label": "Translator last name 9", "description": "The surname of the ninth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator9", "translator9-last" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-first9": { "label": "Translator first name 9", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.", "aliases": [ "translator9-first" ], "type": "string" }, "translator-link2": { "label": "Translator link 2", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second translator.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "translator2-link" ] }, "translator-link3": { "label": "Translator link 3", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third translator.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "translator3-link" ] }, "translator-link4": { "label": "Translator link 4", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth translator.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "translator4-link" ] }, "translator-link5": { "label": "Translator link 5", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth translator.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "translator5-link" ] }, "translator-link6": { "label": "Translator link 6", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth translator.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "translator6-link" ] }, "translator-link7": { "label": "Translator link 7", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh translator.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "translator7-link" ] }, "translator-link8": { "label": "Translator link 8", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth translator.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "translator8-link" ] }, "translator-link9": { "label": "Translator link 9", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth translator.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "translator9-link" ] }, "vauthors": { "label": "Vancouver style author list", "description": "If using Vancouver style, comma separated list of author names; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses", "example": "Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corporation))", "type": "string" }, "issue": { "label": "Issue", "description": "Issue number. This parameter is not supported by and should generally not be used with cite book. Consider that a different cite template may be more appropriate, such as cite magazine or cite journal. See Help:Citation_Style_1#Pages.", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "number" ] }, "coauthor": { "label": "Coauthor", "description": "Coauthor", "type": "string", "deprecated": "Use last# / first# or author or authors. If coauthor · coauthors are used for et al, then use display-authors=etal instead.Include coauthors in author or authors or use separate authorn or lastn/firstn to list coauthors. lastn/firstn is the preferred way of coding this." }, "coauthors": { "label": "Coauthors", "description": "Coauthors", "type": "string", "deprecated": "Use last# / first# or author or authors. If coauthor · coauthors are used for et al, then use display-authors=etal instead.Include coauthors in author or authors or use separate authorn or lastn/firstn to list coauthors. lastn/firstn is the preferred way of coding this." }, "display-editors": { "aliases": [ "displayeditors" ], "label": "Display Editors", "description": "Controls the number of editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of editors, set display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors in a citation. By default, all editors are displayed. |display-editors=etal displays all editors in the list followed by et al.", "type": "string" }, "authors": { "label": "Authors list", "description": "List of authors as a free form list. Use of this parameter is discouraged, \"lastn\" to \"firstn\" are preferable. Warning: do not use if last or any of its aliases are used.", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "people", "host", "credits" ] }, "veditors": { "label": "Vancouver style editor list", "description": "Comma separated list of editor names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional names in doubled parentheses", "example": "Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corporation))", "type": "string" }, "city": { "label": "City of Publication", "description": "Where published", "type": "string", "deprecated": "Use place or location instead." }, "chapter-format": { "aliases": [ "contribution-format", "section-format" ], "label": "Format of Chapter URL", "type": "string", "description": "Format of the work referred to by chapter-url; displayed in parentheses after chapter. HTML is implied and should not be specified.", "example": "PDF, DOC, or XLS" }, "agency": { "label": "Agency", "description": "Unusual in cite book. Use if an agency is needed in addition to publisher, etc.", "type": "string" }, "title-link": { "aliases": [ "titlelink", "episode-link", "episodelink" ], "label": "Title link", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the source named in title – do not use a web address; do not wikilink.", "type": "wiki-page-name" }, "ignore-isbn-error": { "label": "Ignore ISBN Error", "description": "True if ISBN Errors should be ignored.If set, page will be added to a maintenance category \"CS1 maint: Ignored ISBN errors\".", "type": "boolean" }, "collaboration": { "label": "Collaboration", "description": "Name of a group of authors or collaborators; requires author, last, or vauthors which list one or more primary authors; follows author name-list; appends 'et al.' to author name-list.", "type": "string" }, "script-chapter": { "label": "Script Chapter", "description": "Chapter heading for languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc); follows transliteration defined in chapter. Should be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script", "example": "ja:東京タワー", "type": "string" }, "department": { "label": "Department", "description": "Unusual in cite book." }, "class": { "label": "arXiv Class", "description": "Cite arXiv identifiers", "type": "string" }, "hdl": { "aliases": [ "HDL" ], "label": " Handle System identifier", "description": "Handle System identifier for digital objects and other resources on the Internet", "type": "string" }, "archive-format": { "label": "Archive Format", "description": "Format of the Archive", "type": "string" }, "df": { "label": "Date format", "description": "Sets rendered dates to the specified format", "type": "string" } }, "maps": { "proveit": { "main": "title", "textarea": [ "quote" ] }, "citoid": { "edition": "edition", "title": "title", "bookTitle": "title", "publicationTitle": "title", "url": "url", "publisher": "publisher", "date": "date", "place": "location", "ISSN": [ "issn" ], "ISBN": [ "isbn" ], "oclc": "oclc", "PMCID": "pmc", "PMID": "pmid", "pages": "pages", "volume": "volume", "series": "series", "DOI": "doi", "language": "language", "translator": [ [ "translator-first", "translator-last" ], [ "translator-first2", "translator-last2" ], [ "translator-first3", "translator-last3" ], [ "translator-first3", "translator-last3" ], [ "translator-first4", "translator-last4" ], [ "translator-first5", "translator-last5" ], [ "translator-first6", "translator-last6" ], [ "translator-first7", "translator-last7" ], [ "translator-first8", "translator-last8" ], [ "translator-first9", "translator-last9" ] ], "contributor": "others", "author": [ [ "first", "last" ], [ "first2", "last2" ], [ "first3", "last3" ], [ "first4", "last4" ], [ "first5", "last5" ], [ "first6", "last6" ], [ "first7", "last7" ], [ "first8", "last8" ], [ "first9", "last9" ] ], "editor": [ [ "editor-first", "editor-last" ], [ "editor-first2", "editor-last2" ], [ "editor-first3", "editor-last3" ], [ "editor-first4", "editor-last4" ], [ "editor-first5", "editor-last5" ], [ "editor-first6", "editor-last6" ], [ "editor-first7", "editor-last7" ], [ "editor-first8", "editor-last8" ], [ "editor-first9", "editor-last9" ] ] } }, "paramOrder": [ "url", "title", "title-link", "last", "first", "vauthors", "last2", "first2", "last3", "first3", "last4", "first4", "last5", "first5", "last6", "first6", "last7", "first7", "last8", "first8", "last9", "first9", "collaboration", "date", "work", "publisher", "others", "year", "isbn", "ignore-isbn-error", "editor-last", "editor-first", "editor-link", "editor-mask", "veditors", "editors", "edition", "series", "volume", "location", "publication-place", "publication-date", "page", "pages", "nopp", "at", "language", "translator-last", "translator-first", "script-title", "trans-title", "chapter", "script-chapter", "trans-chapter", "type", "format", "arxiv", "class", "asin", "asin-tld", "bibcode", "biorxiv", "citeseerx", "doi", "eissn", "hdl", "ismn", "issn", "jfm", "jstor", "lccn", "mr", "oclc", "ol", "osti", "pmc", "pmid", "rfc", "ssrn", "zbl", "id", "quote", "ref", "name-list-format", "mode", "postscript", "registration", "subscription", "author-mask", "author-mask2", "author-mask3", "author-mask4", "author-mask5", "author-mask6", "author-mask7", "author-mask8", "author-mask9", "display-authors", "author-link", "author-link2", "author-link3", "author-link4", "author-link5", "author-link6", "author-link7", "author-link8", "author-link9", "access-date", "orig-year", "editor-last2", "editor-first2", "editor-link2", "editor-mask2", "editor-last3", "editor-first3", "editor-link3", "editor-mask3", "editor-last4", "editor-first4", "editor-link4", "editor-mask4", "editor-last5", "editor-first5", "editor-link5", "editor-mask5", "editor-last6", "editor-first6", "editor-link6", "editor-mask6", "editor-last7", "editor-first7", "editor-link7", "editor-mask7", "editor-last8", "editor-first8", "editor-link8", "editor-mask8", "editor-last9", "editor-first9", "editor-link9", "editor-mask9", "display-editors", "translator-last2", "translator-first2", "translator-last3", "translator-first3", "translator-last4", "translator-first4", "translator-last5", "translator-first5", "translator-last6", "translator-first6", "translator-last7", "translator-first7", "translator-last8", "translator-first8", "translator-last9", "translator-first9", "translator-link", "translator-link2", "translator-link3", "translator-link4", "translator-link5", "translator-link6", "translator-link7", "translator-link8", "translator-link9", "chapter-url", "chapter-format", "doi-broken-date", "url-access", "archive-url", "archive-format", "archive-date", "dead-url", "lay-url", "lay-source", "lay-date", "last-author-amp", "via", "bibcode-access", "doi-access", "hdl-access", "jstor-access", "ol-access", "osti-access", "issue", "coauthor", "coauthors", "authors", "city", "agency", "department", "df" ], "format": "inline" } </templatedata>

  7. "UN Partition Plan - Resolution 181 (1947)." Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs.