Difference between revisions of "Israel"

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===450 A.D.===
 
===450 A.D.===
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[[File:Huqoq Inscription and face.jpg|Huqoq Inscription and face|300px|right]]
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Biblical mosaics discovered in Israel's ancient city of Huqoq (located in the Galileean region) show numerous Biblical stories, including Samson, Noah's Ark, Jonah being swallowed, the parting of the Red Sea, building of the tower of Babel, and spies sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. In the words of FOX News' James Rogers, "Experts say that the wealth of mosaics show that Jewish life in the surrounding village flourished during Christian rule in the fifth century A.D. This challenges a widely held view that Jewish settlement in the area declined during that period."<ref>Rogers, James (2018, July 12). "[https://www.foxnews.com/science/stunning-biblical-spies-mosaic-discovered-in-israel Stunning Biblical 'Spies' Mosaic Discovered in Israel.]" ''FOX News.''<br>Miller, Carly (2018, June 9). "[https://uncnews.unc.edu/2018/07/09/unparalleled-mosaics-discovered-by-unc-chapel-hill-archaeologist-and-team-provide-new-clues-on-life-in-an-ancient-galilean-jewish-village/ Unparalleled Mosaics Discovered by UNC-Chapel Hill Archaeologist and Team Provide New Clues on Life in an Ancient Galilean Jewish Village.]" ''University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.''</ref>
 
Biblical mosaics discovered in Israel's ancient city of Huqoq (located in the Galileean region) show numerous Biblical stories, including Samson, Noah's Ark, Jonah being swallowed, the parting of the Red Sea, building of the tower of Babel, and spies sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. In the words of FOX News' James Rogers, "Experts say that the wealth of mosaics show that Jewish life in the surrounding village flourished during Christian rule in the fifth century A.D. This challenges a widely held view that Jewish settlement in the area declined during that period."<ref>Rogers, James (2018, July 12). "[https://www.foxnews.com/science/stunning-biblical-spies-mosaic-discovered-in-israel Stunning Biblical 'Spies' Mosaic Discovered in Israel.]" ''FOX News.''<br>Miller, Carly (2018, June 9). "[https://uncnews.unc.edu/2018/07/09/unparalleled-mosaics-discovered-by-unc-chapel-hill-archaeologist-and-team-provide-new-clues-on-life-in-an-ancient-galilean-jewish-village/ Unparalleled Mosaics Discovered by UNC-Chapel Hill Archaeologist and Team Provide New Clues on Life in an Ancient Galilean Jewish Village.]" ''University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.''</ref>
[[File:Huqoq Inscription and face.jpg|Huqoq Inscription and face|150px]]
 
  
 
===600 A.D.===
 
===600 A.D.===
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[[File:OphelTreasure.JPG|The Ophel Treasure, a gold medallion engraved with a menorah and Torah scroll. Photo by Ouria Tadmor/Eilat Mazar. See King Hezekiah in the Bible: Royal Seal of Hezekiah Comes to Light for a larger resolution image.|300px|right]]
  
 
The prize find of the Ophel excavations by Eilat Mazar was a gold medallion engraved with Jewish holy symbols, a menorah (candlestick) and Torah scroll. The treasure dates to the 7th century A.D. and shows that practicing Jews were in Israel 1,400 years ago.<ref>Ngo, Robin (2014, September 29). "[https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-sites-places/jerusalem/king-hezekiah-in-the-bible-royal-seal-of-hezekiah-comes-to-light/ Ophel Treasure Goes on Display at the Israel Museum.]" ''Biblical Archaeology Society.''</ref>
 
The prize find of the Ophel excavations by Eilat Mazar was a gold medallion engraved with Jewish holy symbols, a menorah (candlestick) and Torah scroll. The treasure dates to the 7th century A.D. and shows that practicing Jews were in Israel 1,400 years ago.<ref>Ngo, Robin (2014, September 29). "[https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-sites-places/jerusalem/king-hezekiah-in-the-bible-royal-seal-of-hezekiah-comes-to-light/ Ophel Treasure Goes on Display at the Israel Museum.]" ''Biblical Archaeology Society.''</ref>
 
[[File:OphelTreasure.JPG|The Ophel Treasure, a gold medallion engraved with a menorah and Torah scroll. Photo by Ouria Tadmor/Eilat Mazar. See King Hezekiah in the Bible: Royal Seal of Hezekiah Comes to Light for a larger resolution image.|150px]]
 
  
 
===Zionist Movement===
 
===Zionist Movement===
[[Isaac Leib Goldberg]] helped found the [[Jewish National Fund]] in 1901 to purchase and develop land in what was then Palestine. In 1903 the first plot of land for the [[Jewish National Fund]] was given as a gift by Goldberg for growing [[olives]] in Israel.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.jnf.org/about-jnf/history |title=Our History |last1= |first1= |last2= |first2= |date= |website=[[Jewish National Fund]] |publisher= |accessdate=2015-01-10}}<br>Zvi Shilony, Ideology and Settlement; The Jewish National Fund, 1897-1914, Magnes Press (1998), 119-121.</ref> In 1908 he purchased the first plot of land on [[Mount Scopus]], [[Jerusalem]] for the future [[Hebrew University]]. Isaac Leib Goldberg also helped create the Geulah Company for private land acquisition and sale in Israel, and the Carmel Company for sale of Jewish wine.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.virtualjudaica.com/Item/25625/Zionism_%96_Appeal_for_Assistance |title=Zionism – Appeal for Assistance |last1=Goldberg |first1=Isaac L. |last2= |first2= |date=1904 |website=[[Virtual Judaica]] |publisher= |accessdate=2015-01-10}}</ref>
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[[Isaac Leib Goldberg]] helped found the [[Jewish National Fund]] in 1901 to purchase and develop land in what was then Palestine. In 1903 the first plot of land for the [[Jewish National Fund]] was given as a gift by Goldberg for growing [[olives]] in Israel.<ref>N.a. (2019, June 12). "[https://www.jnf.org/menu-3/our-history Our History-1901: It All Started With A Dream.]" ''Jewish National Fund.''</ref> In 1908 he purchased the first plot of land on [[Mount Scopus]], [[Jerusalem]] for the future [[Hebrew University]]. Isaac Leib Goldberg also helped create the Geulah Company for private land acquisition and sale in Israel, and the Carmel Company for sale of Jewish wine.<ref>Eisenberg, R.L. (2006)."[https://books.google.com/books?id=yqXXD_74yAEC&pg=PA209&lpg=PA209 The Streets of Jerusalem: Who, What, Why.]" ''Devora Publishing.''</ref>
  
Upon his death on September 14, 1935 in [[Switzerland]],<ref name=geni>{{cite web |url=http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0017_0_17311.html |title=Sakiai |last1=Slutsky |first1=Yehuda |last2= |first2= |date= |website=[[Jewish Virtual Library]] |publisher=[[American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise]] |accessdate=2015-01-12}}<br>{{cite web |url=http://www.geni.com/people/Yitzchak-Leib-Goldberg/6000000013345239422 |title=Yitzchak Leib Goldberg |last1=Anne Blejer |first1=Hatte |last2= |first2= |date=2013-03-04 |website=Geni |publisher=[[MyHeritage]] |accessdate=2015-01-10}}</ref>  Goldberg bequeathed one half of his estate to the Jewish National Fund for the promotion of Hebrew language and culture. This donation, known as the Isaac Leib and Rachel Goldberg Fund, amounted to roughly $30 million by today's standards.<ref name=patai>{{cite book |last=Patai |first=Raphael |date=1992 |title=Journeyman in Jerusalem: Memories and Letters, 1933-1947 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=IrF7ZYWMO8MC&pg=PA355&lpg=PA355 |location=[[Oxford]], [[England]] |publisher=[[University of Utah Press]] |page=355 |isbn=0739102095 |accessdate=2015-01-10 }}</ref>
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Upon his death on September 14, 1935 in [[Switzerland]],<ref name=geni>Slutsky, Y. (2019, June 12). "[http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0017_0_17311.html Sakiai.]" ''Jewish Virtual Fund.''<br>Anne Blejer, H. (2013, March 4). "[http://www.geni.com/people/Yitzchak-Leib-Goldberg/6000000013345239422 Yitzchak Leib Goldberg]." '' MyHeritage.''</ref>  Goldberg bequeathed one half of his estate to the Jewish National Fund for the promotion of Hebrew language and culture. This donation, known as the Isaac Leib and Rachel Goldberg Fund, amounted to roughly $30 million by today's standards.<ref name=patai>Patai, R. (1992). "[https://books.google.com/books?id=IrF7ZYWMO8MC&pg=PA355&lpg=PA355 Journeyman in Jerusalem: Memories and Letters, 1933-1947.]" ''University of Utah Press.''</ref> Goldberg was buried in [[Trumpeldor]], [[Tel Aviv]], Israel.<ref name=geni/>
Goldberg was buried in [[Trumpeldor]], [[Tel Aviv]], Israel.<ref name=geni/>
 
  
 
===World War I===
 
===World War I===
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Attempts by Egypt to retake the Sinai Peninsula were unsuccessful, see the War of Attrition (1967-70) and Yom Kippur War (1973). However, Egypt and Israel began peace agreements in 1975 per the Sinai Interim Agreement, resulting in reopening of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. Israel then gave back the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt from 1979-82 as part of a peace agreement limiting the number of Egyptian military forces that can be stationed there.
 
Attempts by Egypt to retake the Sinai Peninsula were unsuccessful, see the War of Attrition (1967-70) and Yom Kippur War (1973). However, Egypt and Israel began peace agreements in 1975 per the Sinai Interim Agreement, resulting in reopening of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. Israel then gave back the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt from 1979-82 as part of a peace agreement limiting the number of Egyptian military forces that can be stationed there.
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==Conflict Solutions==
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===Work With Fatah===
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Hamas is a worldwide-recognized terrorist organization, and it is questionable whether peace can be reached so long as they are in power. Fatah on the other hand may be more easily reasoned with. Peace accords were being reached between Israel and Fatah prior to Yasser Arafat's untimely death.
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===Redraw Territorial Boundaries===
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[[File:West Bank & Gaza Map 2007 (Settlements).png|Map Showing Israel and Palestinian Areas|450px|right]]
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Palestinian terrorists are too close to Israel's capital of Jerusalem right now and as such are able to constantly fire rockets at it. It would be like having Al Qaida camped just outside Washington D.C. It's not a good situation.
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Territorial boundaries should simply be redrawn so both sides have the same amount of land to ensure a buffer zone between Israel and Palestine, particularly the Jerusalem area. Right now Palestinian territory is all split up and surrounds Jerusalem. Just relocate the Palestinian territory elsewhere so they are all in one place away from Jerusalem.
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====Goodwill Efforts====
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Israel could make some efforts to build goodwill in the process like ensuring some decent housing for Palestinians at their new location, adequate water treatment and food facilities/farms, education facilities, etc. A few good-faith efforts by Israel during the relocation process could go a long way towards mending bridges between the two communities.
  
 
==Sources==
 
==Sources==
 
{{Reflist}}
 
{{Reflist}}

Latest revision as of 10:28, 12 June 2019

Flag of Israel

Historical Context

2120 B.C.: Abraham

See also Bible Chronology

It is important to note that God gave land, not just to Israel, but also to neighboring nations such as the Edomites (descended from Esau, Jacob's brother), the Ammonites, and the Moabites (both descended from Lot, Abraham's brother). The land was promised to Abraham over 4,000 years ago, around 2120 B.C., during the time that he lived in Canaan. Thus Abraham and his descendants, including Jacob (surnamed Israel) lived in Canaan, now modern-day Israel, from approximately 2120 B.C. to 1925 B.C. Following a 430-year sojourn in Egypt (Exodus 12:40-41), they would return to Israel around 1495 B.C.

Genesis 15:18-21 In the same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates: The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites, And the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Rephaims, And the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and the Jebusites.

Deuteronomy 2:1-5 Then we turned, and took our journey into the wilderness by the way of the Red sea, as the Lord spake unto me: and we compassed mount Seir many days. And the Lord spake unto me, saying, Ye have compassed this mountain long enough: turn you northward. And command thou the people, saying, Ye are to pass through the coast of your brethren the children of Esau, which dwell in Seir; and they shall be afraid of you: take ye good heed unto yourselves therefore: Meddle not with them; for I will not give you of their land, no, not so much as a foot breadth; because I have given mount Seir unto Esau for a possession.

Deuteronomy 2:17-19 That the Lord spake unto me, saying, Thou art to pass over through Ar, the coast of Moab, this day: And when thou comest nigh over against the children of Ammon, distress them not, nor meddle with them: for I will not give thee of the land of the children of Ammon any possession; because I have given it unto the children of Lot for a possession.

450 A.D.

Huqoq Inscription and face

Biblical mosaics discovered in Israel's ancient city of Huqoq (located in the Galileean region) show numerous Biblical stories, including Samson, Noah's Ark, Jonah being swallowed, the parting of the Red Sea, building of the tower of Babel, and spies sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. In the words of FOX News' James Rogers, "Experts say that the wealth of mosaics show that Jewish life in the surrounding village flourished during Christian rule in the fifth century A.D. This challenges a widely held view that Jewish settlement in the area declined during that period."[1]

600 A.D.

The Ophel Treasure, a gold medallion engraved with a menorah and Torah scroll. Photo by Ouria Tadmor/Eilat Mazar. See King Hezekiah in the Bible: Royal Seal of Hezekiah Comes to Light for a larger resolution image.

The prize find of the Ophel excavations by Eilat Mazar was a gold medallion engraved with Jewish holy symbols, a menorah (candlestick) and Torah scroll. The treasure dates to the 7th century A.D. and shows that practicing Jews were in Israel 1,400 years ago.[2]

Zionist Movement

Isaac Leib Goldberg helped found the Jewish National Fund in 1901 to purchase and develop land in what was then Palestine. In 1903 the first plot of land for the Jewish National Fund was given as a gift by Goldberg for growing olives in Israel.[3] In 1908 he purchased the first plot of land on Mount Scopus, Jerusalem for the future Hebrew University. Isaac Leib Goldberg also helped create the Geulah Company for private land acquisition and sale in Israel, and the Carmel Company for sale of Jewish wine.[4]

Upon his death on September 14, 1935 in Switzerland,[5] Goldberg bequeathed one half of his estate to the Jewish National Fund for the promotion of Hebrew language and culture. This donation, known as the Isaac Leib and Rachel Goldberg Fund, amounted to roughly $30 million by today's standards.[6] Goldberg was buried in Trumpeldor, Tel Aviv, Israel.[5]

World War I

The British Empire captured Palestine, now modern-day Israel, during World War I from the German-led Ottoman Empire as part of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign (1915-18). This would mark a roughly 30-year period of British rule from 1923-48.

Intermediate Period

The British Government had plans to create an Israelite state since November 2, 1917 when the Balfour Declaration was issued, per the British Mandate for Palestine (1923-1948). Immediately before the outbreak of World War II, a major Arab uprising against the British Empire running Palestine and the growing influx of Jewish immigrants occurred, the 1936-39 Arab revolt in Palestine.

World War II

As the result of Hitler's genocide against the Jewish people, and the failure of Europe to protect dispersed Jews during World War II, the European Union November 29, 1947 adopted a partition plan creating the state of Israel alongside a separate Palestinian state with the Jerusalem-Bethlehem region an internationally-administrated separate enclave.[7]

1947-48 Wars

The British attempt to create an independent Israeli state quickly resulted in warfare, as Arab communities attacked Jewish communities during the 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine. Immediately upon expiration of the British Mandate of Palestine as the state of Israel was created, all of the neighboring Arab states attacked Israel; Egypt, Transjordan, Iraq, and Syria, resulting in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Israel won and expanded its borders, resulting in the 1949 Armistice Agreements.

1967 Six-Day War

Egypt, in defiance of the armistice agreements, blocked the Straits of Tiran to stop Israelite shipping to the Mediterranean, resulting in Israel invading the Sinai Peninsula in 1956; what is known as the Suez Crisis. In 1957 Israel withdrew its forces from the Sinai Peninsula, and the United Nations Emergency Force was stationed there to prevent further conflict.

In 1967 Egypt forced U.N. forces out of the Sinai Peninsula and temporarily reoccupied it. When Egypt once again opted to block the Straits of Tiran in 1967, and mobilized its forces along the Israeli border, Israel retaliated by attacking Egyptian airfields. Both Syria and Jordan joined Egypt in attacking Israel, resulting in Israel conquering the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Egypt, the West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.

Attempts by Egypt to retake the Sinai Peninsula were unsuccessful, see the War of Attrition (1967-70) and Yom Kippur War (1973). However, Egypt and Israel began peace agreements in 1975 per the Sinai Interim Agreement, resulting in reopening of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. Israel then gave back the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt from 1979-82 as part of a peace agreement limiting the number of Egyptian military forces that can be stationed there.

Conflict Solutions

Work With Fatah

Hamas is a worldwide-recognized terrorist organization, and it is questionable whether peace can be reached so long as they are in power. Fatah on the other hand may be more easily reasoned with. Peace accords were being reached between Israel and Fatah prior to Yasser Arafat's untimely death.

Redraw Territorial Boundaries

Map Showing Israel and Palestinian Areas

Palestinian terrorists are too close to Israel's capital of Jerusalem right now and as such are able to constantly fire rockets at it. It would be like having Al Qaida camped just outside Washington D.C. It's not a good situation.

Territorial boundaries should simply be redrawn so both sides have the same amount of land to ensure a buffer zone between Israel and Palestine, particularly the Jerusalem area. Right now Palestinian territory is all split up and surrounds Jerusalem. Just relocate the Palestinian territory elsewhere so they are all in one place away from Jerusalem.

Goodwill Efforts

Israel could make some efforts to build goodwill in the process like ensuring some decent housing for Palestinians at their new location, adequate water treatment and food facilities/farms, education facilities, etc. A few good-faith efforts by Israel during the relocation process could go a long way towards mending bridges between the two communities.

Sources

  1. Rogers, James (2018, July 12). "Stunning Biblical 'Spies' Mosaic Discovered in Israel." FOX News.
    Miller, Carly (2018, June 9). "Unparalleled Mosaics Discovered by UNC-Chapel Hill Archaeologist and Team Provide New Clues on Life in an Ancient Galilean Jewish Village." University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  2. Ngo, Robin (2014, September 29). "Ophel Treasure Goes on Display at the Israel Museum." Biblical Archaeology Society.
  3. N.a. (2019, June 12). "Our History-1901: It All Started With A Dream." Jewish National Fund.
  4. Eisenberg, R.L. (2006)."The Streets of Jerusalem: Who, What, Why." Devora Publishing.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Slutsky, Y. (2019, June 12). "Sakiai." Jewish Virtual Fund.
    Anne Blejer, H. (2013, March 4). "Yitzchak Leib Goldberg." MyHeritage.
  6. Patai, R. (1992). "Journeyman in Jerusalem: Memories and Letters, 1933-1947." University of Utah Press.
  7. "UN Partition Plan - Resolution 181 (1947)." Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs.